Guidance for the reader
The statements made in this essay are not scientifically confirmed or acknowledged, nor are they made as claims of truth, rather they are a mix of observations and ideas about hypothetical options for a seemingly logical explanation of the observations. The statements in this essay are a possible way of looking at things, aiming to be in accordance with the scientifical knowledge but not necessarily following current mainstream views. The essay consists of ideas that, as a whole, are meant to be consistent with each other. Whether the ideas resemble reality is another matter and is in fact difficult to say, but most importantly, the ideas are meant to be a possible resemblance of reality and are aimed to do a good job. While new ideas pop up, the existing ideas are in a process of constant evaluation and validation and are therefore continuously subject to adjustments in order to maintain the consistency of them all. In order to maintain the consistency of the ideas, feedback from the reader is highly valued, so please do not hesitate to react with questions and comments. As the ideas in this essay sometimes seem to deviate from mainstream scientifical views, the feedback from the scientifical reader in particular is highly appreciated.
*) means; See the appendix.
This essay is an attempt to explain the central idea of this essay, that evolution*) as a process of adaptation, is not specific for life*), but is just as well a generic fundamental process in non-life processes.
Non-life processes are a result of adaption to The Selective Process*). Life adds to the fundamental non-life process of adaptation, a form of anticipation, thus introducing an extra dynamic to the adaptation.
For life to be able to evolve its way of anticipation, it is necessary to have an unbroken thread of development. The thread consists of generations in which all generations are connected to one chain. At all stages of this thread there is a connection with the earlier stages of anticipation by means of a data library (DNA) to be used as memory in order to store and recover best practices. The ongoing process of anticipation and adaption, results in increased diversity*) within life as a whole.
In order to make the above points in this essay, some background information on the underlying ideas about fundamental processes, follows. In order to make it easier to follow what is presented in this essay, it is important to be familiar with some of the key phrases and -ideas, which are being used in this essay, for example “The Selective Process”. In order to familiarize oneself, one can read the Glossary. Additionally the earlier blogpost “E=mc2” at https://blogpondering.com/2021/09/24/emc2/ is an attempt to explain the main fundamental processes which form the context of evolution. For now, in this essay, a description of the most relevant part of the theory of blogpost “E=mc2” will hopefully suffice, in order to provide the necessary background. Let’s start with an analogy.
An analogy of the underlying mechanism of the evolutionary process can be made with the image of computers. A processor holds a process of technical physics, of electricity, of bits and bytes and of defined processes which can act as a basis for all kinds of applications. A processor and its attached system hardware, thus can act as a platform for process development (software). As the basis of the platform remains unchanged (this is a prerequisite), endless amounts of processes can be and are developed by means of combining the available basic elements of the computer system in endless amounts of distinct combinations, which are applied through the means of software. It is essential that the basic fundamentals do not change, otherwise all applications will stop functioning. The software development is making use of the possibilities, gradually unlocking more possibilities while building on top of previous builds. Likewise, evolution, rather than creating something new, is a process of unlocking the existing possibilities. The 2 drivers behind evolution are The Elementary/Fundamental Process*), in combination with the Selective Process*), in which initial ad randomness is channeled into specific structures of repetition. In the analogy these 2 drivers can be compared with respectively a computer processor acting as platform, having many people trying things out for software development, in combination with a selective market place which decides which developed processes are deployed and which are not. The ones that are not, we will never see or only for a limited time span. In human evolution, the deployment of processes has a bottom line purpose of contribution to human survival/anticipation.
Fundamental background (1)
All that is, is a process or subprocess, derived from the underlying Fundamental Process. All that we know of and are able to detect, is interaction of processes. There is no such thing as stand still. At the elementary level, everything is constantly moving, with speed c. Speed c is the pace of the Process of propagation of ΔF*). Everything moving slower than c is a structure of conglomerated ΔF in which some part of the ΔF is not moving with c but with c2, meaning the process with c is redirected into a rotational movement. The process with speed c2 exists as what we know as matter having mass.
ΔF can be seen as the representation of the fundamental unit of change or interaction, being the result of either attraction or repulsion. All there is, as we know it, is continuous change or interaction of ΔF. F represents a force and can be constant but in reality the constant F consists of underlying processes of continuous interaction which are agents of ΔF. The fundamental process of interaction of ΔF, is also referred to as “The Fundamental Process”*). The Fundamental Process is of an ad random binary character; it operates the elementary ΔF without any form of organization. While The Elementary Process propagates fundamental ΔF in a uniform and sequential way, The Fundamental Process involves the interaction of the elementary ΔF which is of a chaotic ad random character. Interaction happens when sequences of elementary ΔF meet. Another process is responsible for the shaping of the processed fundamental ΔF into patterns of repetition which are detectable to us. This process is referred to as “The Selective Process”*). The Selective Process is the result of fixed preferences in attraction or repulsion, which we know of as “the laws of nature” or “the laws of physics”. The combination of the 2 processes, “The Fundamental Process” and “The Selective Process” results in a process of continuous change and the continuous shaping of ΔF into structures of repetition. This process is called “The Generic Process”*). This shaping of ΔF into structures of repetition, is subject to an evolutionary process. This is the case since all processes are continuously subject to The Selective Process as well as subject to change through continuous interaction with surrounding processes. In this case, we are talking about processes which are structured conglomerates of the underlying Fundamental Process. Although realizing that a process exists as a result of the filtering function of The Selective Process, in a way one could say that, as long as the result of change complies with The Selective Process, the process at hand continues to exist and as soon as the result of change does not comply with the Selective Process the process at hand, will die. This mechanism is comparable with the “survival of the fittest” or natural selection, in biological evolution. Processes are following a path of cause-and-effect which course is fixed by the fixed preferences of The Selective Process. One can say that the universe unfolds in some kind of a fixed manner although for us it is rather unpredictable because the exact course depends on many parameters and their innumerous values. Evolution is a process of development which seems to create something new but rather it follows the path that is set by The Selective Process. The result of evolution is being “pulled” as it were, out of The Fundamental Process by The Selective Process. For example; At the level of non-life physics, it is deemed that original Helium gasses evolve into the atomic elements. The elements evolve into structures of molecules. Stars evolve from gas nebula’s into protostars and several stages onwards. At the level of life physics, biology, life processes, being organisms, organisms evolve into processes following the changing circumstances in order to continuously increase the ability of anticipation of the surrounding processes in order to optimize the chance for survival.
The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process work together as one platform of development. The platform is referred to as “The Generic Process” and is a process of continuous interaction of ΔF, or in other words; the process of transformation of Energy. The platform created by The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process is of a continuous character as the filtering mechanism is consistent in its criteria and always acts in the same way. This continuity is the basis of the platform for development, creating patterns of repetition in a kind of predictable manner. The continuity results in repetition as well as in development, manifesting in continuous building of structures of interacting subprocesses, in aggregations or conglomerates of structures of repetition, in layers of processes, one working on top of another. This development follows the logic caused by The Selective Process, which sets a specific path of cause and effect, while having the ad random Fundamental Process as the driver. The path of cause and effect is the result of the continuous process of transformation of ad randomness, into specific interaction, made specific by fixed preferences, creating subprocesses of specific patterns of repetition which are not continuous, as the patterns will cease to exist at some point due to the interaction with surrounding subprocesses.
Thus our world exists of subprocesses which start and end due to interaction with other subprocesses which are yet all part of a continuous parent Process. The interaction between subprocesses seems to be chaotic as subprocesses come and go. However, the interaction, the coming and going, the chain of cause and effect, follows fixed preferences, laws of nature. Since these preferences are continuously fixed and act consistently, the chaos actually is a process of transformation of patterns of repetition. The transformation into certain patterns of repetition continues until it is stopped by interaction with other subprocesses, possibly within a wider pattern of repetition of subprocesses. In this dynamics it is possible to have structures of repetition of subprocesses formed. An example of this are all forms of mass. And in this dynamics logically, development takes place, as described above, as a process of evolution; the evolution of the universe, resulting in the formation of chemical elements, mass and stars and planets, and much more.
Everything we know is built of processes of cause and effect, action and reaction, seemingly interacting*) with surrounding processes while all processes are following fixed laws of physics. Processes do not really end but instead discontinue and continue in another form within the context of the surrounding processes that they interact with. The parent Process is The Generic Process, creating a circus of subprocesses of interaction and continuous change, all within the context of a fixed set of Energy. The circus of subprocesses of interaction and change, seems to create and destroy things when looking at it at a local level, but in fact it is merely a reshuffle of existing structures of ΔF. There is no such thing as new creation or destroyed creation other than a reconfiguration of the existing, of what is already there, following the law of conservation of energy. This circus of interacting subprocesses is the arena of evolution. The circus forms a mix of endless repetition of processes and ongoing change of processes through interaction of processes. It is the combination of these 2 ingredients; repetition and change, which drives evolution.
Definition of evolution
“Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.”
The definition of evolution in Wikipedia is narrowed down to biological populations. The mechanism at hand as proposed in this essay however is not, it is more fundamental than that. In that sense there is no need to narrow the definition of evolution down to biological populations. This is because the mechanism of evolution applies to all processes which act in iterative repetition in a context of approval with parameters having relatively fixed settings and at the fundamental level of physics this applies to everything. The definition of evolution in Wikipedia is the definition of evolution of life, being a process of anticipation. However, the evolution of biological populations is part of a wider area of evolutionary processes which are all based on the same fundamental principles.
Definition of evolution:
“Evolution” is the result of the evolutionary process. “The evolutionary process” is, in its fundamental form, a process which results in development towards adaption to The Selective Process*) and when concerning life*), it aims to optimize anticipation of The Selective Process.
In this essay the term “evolution” is used for both “evolution” and “the evolutionary process”.
Evolution is the effect of the combination of (1) iterative continuous change in a repetitive process, and of (2) relatively fixed parameters of “approval”, acting as a consistent filter. The filter is filtering changes in processes, either leaving processes intact or changed or ended. Due to the parameters being relatively fixed, the effect is a development of processes that builds towards an optimum of compliance. The iterative continuous change in a context of selected processes, leads to builds of processes which are built on top of earlier formed processes.
Evolution builds increasingly more complex structures of processes, based on selections of best practices, by aggregation of processes and by nesting of processes. Best practices are defined by The Selective Process, the road to best practices is paved by repetitive structures and change. Change being the driver behind adjustment, in order to improve compliancy with the fixed preferences of The Selective Process.
Evolution results in a trend which is working towards an optimum or towards a certain direction in development. There are basically 3 ingredients for this; (1) a repetitive process, (2) iteration or continuous change, leading to variation in the repetition of the process and (3) a selective process having fixed preferences which filters the variation. These 3 ingredients are present everywhere in the universe as we know it. At the fundamental level of ΔF, ingredient (2) iteration, is in fact a logical outcome of the combination of ingredient (1), being The Elementary Process and ingredient (3), being The Selective Process. This is based on the presence of a fundamental ΔF, being the source of all change. In the case of evolution at the fundamental level of ΔF, new processes or versions of processes are initially formed as randomly interaction of ΔF through The Fundamental Process. The Selective Process takes the chaos of ad random interaction as input and shapes it into patterns of repetition.
Here is a short explanation of the 3 ingredients mentioned;
(1) A repetitive process. All which we observe is a repetitive process. We can only see what is repetitive. This is because we see things with our brains in cooperation with our memory. Memory stores patterns of repetition. One-time events have no meaning to us as a one-time event cannot be retrieved. Without repetition there is nothing to be registered in our memory. We see repetitive processes or actually instances of the processes. At the fundamental level of ΔF, there is an abundance of one-time events, yet being produced by a repetitive process; The Elementary Process. The Elementary Process can be seen as a manufacturer of continuous amounts of ΔF and as producer of continuous alteration, conceptually comparable perhaps with an AC electrical current. Cosmic Background Radiation can be seen as a feature of The Elementary Process. The Elementary Process is repetitive, yet it only deals with one-time events having no other structures of repetition than the basic binary alteration of ΔF. This is the basis of all other forms of repetition. In order to form more complex forms of repetition ingredients (2) and (3) are needed. Evolution results in structures of repetition which are built on top of each other, forming different levels of processing systems. Examples of these levels are atoms, molecules and stars. At the level of life-processes, there is a second process of repetition relevant for evolution, being generations. Generations are an example of iteration having the capability of anticipation as a special selecting criterium.
(2) Iteration. Iteration is a repeating cycle of similar, yet not identical, process steps in which the start of a new cycle incorporates the result of the previous cycle, keeping best practices, according to The Selective Process. Iteration is a key ingredient for structured development. Iteration takes place in a repetitive process having cycles. As the cycles incorporate change, we can speak of cycles in terms of generations. Iterations incorporate improvements as iterations are subject to a selective process which results in a comparison between the new and the previous version of the iteration in favor of one of them, according to fixed criteria. Iteration is also a feature of evolution of life-processes, where iteration is a process of learning. Learning requires a memory structure and requires a chain of iteration cycles, which is unbroken, in order to transfer best-practices from one generation to the next. Iteration does not exist on the level of The Elementary Process and on the level of The Fundamental Process. In order to have processes iterate, The Selective Process is necessary.
(3)A selective process of preferences. At the fundamental level this concerns The Selective Process better known to us as the laws of physics. The laws of physics derive from the fixed preferences of The Selective Process which apply to all processes know to us, which are sub-processes of The Generic Process, being the parent process. Non-life processes are to be compliant with the laws of physics, being the result of the fixed preferences of The Selective Process. Life processes are processes build on top of non-life processes and on top of that, life processes introduce anticipation of The Selective Process. Initially this anticipation concerns anticipation of the laws of physics. However, in the world of life processes and anticipation of The Selective Process, we can still speak of The Selective Process yet having an extra dimension. The Selective Process is regarded to be applicable to life processes as a selective process of preferences. The difference with non-life processes is the anticipation, which is just as well subject to the fixed preferences of The Selective Process. Preference goes to the processes which are better in anticipation. In biological evolution as described in Wikipedia, the selective process is “Survival of the fittest”, in which “fittest” can be any characteristic which is beneficial for survival and “survival” is the endurance over generations of organisms. The result is a form of best-practices and is stored in DNA, which acts as memory, being used for anticipating the repetitive patterns of reality.
Evolution usually is placed in the context of life. But looking at the above definition of evolution, it is not restricted to the context of life. Life is the product of evolution, the evolution of non-life processes. It is not the other-way-around, as in evolution being a product of life. The latter can be correct in case evolution is restricted to anticipation of The Selective Process. In this essay the point to make is that this restricted view on evolution is dependent on the wider view, which includes evolution of non-life processes. This means that the process of anticipation, which is life, is a product of evolution. Somehow, the combination of fixed preferences of the Selective Process and the abundance of ΔF being continuously processed by the Selective Process, logically results in processes capable of anticipation of the fixed preferences. How this happens is still a mystery but it isn’t mysterious as we can see from the evolution of life. The evolution of life is a process of continuous improvement of the capability of anticipation. The mystery is in essence in the start of life, as the biological evolution depends on an unbroken thread of iterations. The start of life and its biological iterative evolution lacks the preceding step of anticipation. We can assume that the evolution of life started after an evolution of non-life processes had taken place. Evolution is driven by a continuous reshuffle of structures of ΔF in a continuous process of cause and effect, happening both sequentially (time) and in parallel (space), steered by the laws of physics. This process of renewal and change and of endless recombination and interaction of ΔF, results in an increase of variety of processes which comply to the laws of physics and exist as repetition. More and more new processes are being developed as these appear to be compliant with the laws of physics. This is how, from basic ΔF, the atomic elements have formed and continued evolving into other processes like molecules and substances of matter. All matter is made of processes of ΔF. The evolution of non-life processes somehow resulted in the formation of memory, possibly being a logical outcome of the evolutionary process. More thoughts on the start of life is planned to be published in a separate blog post.
Evolution as described above, is a common elementary process which principle is responsible for the creation of the structures or systems of processes which constitute our world, in present, past and future times. It is a fundamental process which is generically present everywhere in the universe. There are many manifestations of evolution depending on the process at hand in the evolutionary process. All these manifestations are going through the same steps of the evolutionary process under similar circumstances; there is a process at hand undergoing evolutionary development, this process is of a repetitive nature, the process has regular interaction with other processes, which interaction introduces continuous change in the repetitive patterns while a selective process, having relatively fixed preferences, determines which change results in sustainable processes having newly created repetitive patterns.
Evolution, as a process of development in interaction of processes, both non-life and life, is a process of optimization, driven by an engine of continuous random interaction, combined with a selective process which acts as a consistent filter on the interaction and thus sets the target for an optimum. While The Selective Process initially acts on ad random interaction, thus transforming ad-randomness into structures of repetition, it successively acts on those structures, shaping the structures to a next level. The shaping is the result of specific repetitive interaction of processes of ΔF. The interaction may lead to transformation of processes in a different configuration of processing ΔF, like with chemical reaction, or it may lead to movement, in which case, transformation is a copying process. In both cases the interacting structures are rebuild as these are new instances of the original processes of ΔF. The rebuild is an essential ingredient for evolution as it introduces a continuous process of validation of processes against the preferences of The Selective Process. Every rebuild is an opportunity for change, depending on the outcome of the repeated validation that comes with the rebuild. All this is processing with speed c; the speed of The Elementary Process.
Evolution of non-life processes.
For non-life processes, evolution is based on the trail of cause-and-effect set by the boundaries of The Selective Process. The driver of the cause-and-effect trail is The Fundamental Process which by itself does not result in any structured cause-and-effect, without the Selective Process. Other than for life processes, for non-life processes, there are no options when following the trail of cause-and-effect; it is either “do” or “die”. For example, a process of a stone falling upwards has no chance. A process of a stone falling down, is active until the stone hits the ground. At that point, circumstances have changed and The Selective Process leaves no place for the original process in the changed circumstances. The original process is transferred into a different kind of interaction of surrounding processes, in accordance with The Selective Process. Evolution is the result of the combination of The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process. The combination results in a continuous process of building of new structures of ΔF which structures are in accordance with The Selective Process. This ongoing process is operating in accordance with the law of conservation of energy and builds structures from scratch, or on top of existing earlier built structures, all in a fixed context of cause-and-effect. The cause-and-effect trail can be seen as a pulled process, pulled into shape by The Selective Process, rather than an intentionally pushed process itself. Not that it is pulled, it is pushed by The Elementary/Fundamental Process but initially in an ad random uniform way. The course of cause-and-effect however, is following the fixed rules of the secondary Selective Process, as if the output of The Fundamental Process is pulled through a matrix in order to receive its shape in The Generic Process. The Fundamental Process can be seen as if it is scanning (using speed c) all possible options of interaction of ΔF at all times and The Selective Process as the director to determine which options will actually happen. The Selective Process acts with fixed preferences for repulsion and attraction (ΔF) resulting in a kind of pulling effect on the cause-and-effect trail, directing it in a fixed manner. The evolution of non-life processes is the result of the 3 ingredients; repetition, change and selection.
Now we have set the scene of the generic fundamental process of evolution in non-life processes, we can continue onwards and have a look at life processes. Life processes are enabled by the fixed character of the preferences of The Selective Process.
Evolution of life processes; definition
Definition of life:
“Life” is a process of anticipation of interaction with surrounding processes. (Or anticipation of reality, which reality can be described as The Generic Process*) following The Selective Process*)). Life is a process existing of a conglomeration of processes, which has some capability to adapt to circumstances for which it makes use of knowledge of the repetitive patterns of other processes. Life on earth, stores the knowledge of repetitive patterns in DNA. Life lives on anticipation of the repetitive structures of surrounding processes by means of extrapolation, leading to expectation. Expectation is used to anticipate The Selective Process, increasing the chance to survive within The generic Process. Expectation is stored in memory. Anticipation of The Selective Process is the difference between living processes and non-living processes. Non-living processes do follow The Selective Process but are not capable of anticipating The Selective Process. Life interacts with other processes by making use of memory structures and receptors. Part of the process of organic life-forms, is to develop generations in order to sustain and develop an unbroken thread of anticipation. Clarification: this definition of “life” concerns the process in general, it is not addressing the conscious activity of an individual from birth to death, which we also call life or a life. The life we humans live and experience is part of “life” and is as such only the top of the iceberg. Most of the processes which are part of our lives, are beyond our conscious control and are running without us being aware of it, for example the processes within a cell. Yet, all these processes are processes of anticipation or part of a process of anticipation and being built on non-life processes. This means that life’s anticipation is not necessarily an activity in our consciousness, not at all.
More thoughts about the fundamentals of life can be found in the earlier post “life” at https://blogpondering.com/2018/12/30/life/ .
Life consists of best-practices of interaction of underlying non-life processes. The best-practices deal with optimization of the process of anticipation of The Selective Process, thus increasing the chance of survival of the life process. Circumstances is a phrase for the state of surrounding processes in the context of the combination of The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process. The Selective Process is operating in a combined context of on one hand fixed preferences and on the other hand a wide range of diverse and ever changing circumstances. Part of the evolutionary process is the adjustment to circumstances. As circumstances change, evolutionary change occurs. For biological evolution of life processes, this takes time as the evolutionary change needs to be registered in DNA, somehow.
Evolution of life processes; increasing capability of anticipation.
We humans are processes just like everything else. We are processes of transformation of energy, being ongoing interaction of ΔF, like everything else. A classic biological manifestation of this transformation of energy is “eating and being eaten”. Evolution is the process of ongoing interaction of ΔF in a selective manner, creating increasingly distinct structures of transformation. The result seems quite impressive, but in the basis it is nothing more than simple ΔF, filtered from plain randomness into patterns of repetition and put together into increasing complex aggregations, layer over layer. For non-life processes this is possible because processes which are compliant with The Selective Process do not stop and can act as the basis for other processes. For life processes this is possible by the unbroken thread of replicated DNA. That is what we are. We are subprocesses which are part of The Generic Process and, within this context, are acting on top of a base of fundamental processes. Subprocesses of these base processes may come and go, we may come and go, may be born and die, but The Generic Process which we are part of does not. This continuity is the basis of evolution. Evolution results in a trend in the development of the result of the continuous interaction of ΔF. Evolution is the mechanism behind this trend.
The evolution of life follows the same principles as the evolution of non-life, except for having an add-on built on top of the non-life evolution. This add-on is anticipation by use of memory. Life is a process which distinction is that it anticipates The Selective Process. Life is a process based on or build on, non-life processes. Built as a system consisting of non-life processes, life stays alive as a system while anticipating its parent processes, having knowledge to predict what is coming and capability to deal with that. Evolution of life is about the logic of optimizing this capability of anticipation. The logic of evolution of non-life is in the fixed preferences of The Selective Process combined with a continuous driver of the Fundamental Process and the logic of evolution of life is in the capability of anticipating the fixed preferences of The Selective Process; the capability of learning. In non-life processing, the logic results in patterns of repetition. In life processes, anticipation takes this repetition one step further, creating systems of combined processes working together as patterns of repetition which are able to sustain or survive as a process. The evolution of life depends on the capability of continuous learning, resulting in increased diversity within the total scope of life, thus increasing the chances and the ability to survive as a whole. Continuous learning is only possible within a continuous process, as learning needs memory. Without continuity a process starts from scratch, having lost all that is learned. All life can be traced back to the original process which started to survive by anticipation. Learning is the equivalent of development except for the distinction that learning concerns development of capability of anticipation. Life is only possible, as being a continuous chain of cause-and-effect, a continuous process. Still, life and death go hand in hand. However, the chain stays unbroken by the creation of generations, having the parental DNA. Subprocesses of life may die, but live onwards in the next generations. Learning capability is in the capability of recognizing patterns of repetition. Understanding is recognizing patterns of repetition in context and recognizing how patterns are connected to each other, recognizing the correct order of cause-and-effect. With this knowledge, anticipation is enabled. When next generations of life differ from the parent, improved capability is possible. The improvement is defined by The Selective Process and realized in The Generic Process, being the result of The Fundamental Process in combination with The Selective Process. The phenomenon of generations is the manifestation of the combination of a continuous parent process which develops DNA and the interaction of discontinuous subprocesses, being learning iterations, thus developing the DNA of the continuous parent process. The distinction between life and non-life processes is in the capability of anticipation. The distinction of life generations, compared with non-life subprocesses, is in the presence of memory, especially in the form of DNA. DNA can be seen as a library full of best practices, to be used by life processes in order to anticipate the environment which consists of interaction with other processes. The library is handed over to the next generations, while having additional volumes and updates on volumes of previous generations. The trend in the updates, being selected, is beneficial for anticipation or for survival, as the fixed preferences of The Selective Process are biased towards such a trend. In other words, the trend is a result of a biased pattern which kills processes and which leaves other processes alive, according to a specific fixed preference.
Life is in essence survival or process capability to sustain, even when the environment changes. Life is a process of anticipation of reality, as it is shaped by The Selective Process. A life process is made out of non-life processes. A life process is a compound of non-life processes which runs (survives) as a system of aggregated non-life processes, being repetitive patterns, not being an ad random process of ΔF but being a selection of best practices, based on the fixed preferences of The Selective Process. As long as the compound process complies with the preferences of The Selective Process, it sustains and survives. For this to happen the underlying non-life processes, being the building blocks of the compound, need to remain fairly unchanged and need to remain their status of being best practices. This secures limitation of changes in the circumstances for the life process. As The Generic Process, being a process of continuous interaction of ΔF, causes continuous change in circumstances, this is not easily realized. Life’s anticipation of reality results in continuous improvement of survival skills or in continuous adjustments to changed circumstances. While evolution of non-life is based on a process of fixed preferences of interaction of ΔF, resulting in “natural selection”, evolution of life is based on recognition of a process of “natural selection”, a recognition of best practices.
If the existence of life, is the result of the process of non-live evolution, then iteration by generations, is a product of evolution, not the other way around. Iteration by generations contains change that is organized by life. Iteration by generations is an intensifier of the process of anticipation, that life is. Iterations, being generations, are part of the effort of life to improve the process of anticipation and to increase survival skills. Mutation is another source of change, which is based on change in the underlying non-life processes and which has an ad random character.
Evolution of life processes; unbroken thread
Life, possibly all life, can be traced back to one source. The total chain of life subprocesses, consisting of the start and the handover to generations by ancestors to-date, is one process. Once this process is stopped, in order to get it back on track, a newly started process starts from scratch, since a newly started process that is not part of the chain of cause-and-effect, does not have access to the memory resources anymore. In the ongoing process of life as-we-know-it, subprocesses of life may end but the source process stays intact, which results in new generations. The source process is a process of anticipation of interaction, anticipation of circumstances, based on recognition. All life can be traced back to this source of anticipation.
Change may cause processes to end and all processes which end, end because of change. When a non-life process gets incorporated in an organization of processes which are complementary to each other and thus creates favorable circumstances (interaction with neighboring processes), the process becomes more resilient to change than before. An organism is an example of such an organization of processes which are complementary to each other. An organism exists of many processes which would not be able to exist on their own as non-live processes, but which can exist in the context of the greater complex of processes. From here, life builds increasingly complex processes with increased resilience to change (change in circumstances both external and internal). It does that by incorporating specific internal change, as newly developed best practices.
Life can be compared with a franchise business; it is processing best practices, which are developed and licensed by The Generic Process and The Selective Process.
Life is a chain of processes having an unbroken thread in which development takes place with increasing survival skills as result. At the moment, in this day and age, there are many billions of life processes (organisms) running, in great variety and diversity, all stemming from one shared source and all sharing the same shaping selective process and it’s uniform preferences. The diversity is the result of the process of evolution and is due to the diversity in circumstances, meaning the variety in patterns of interaction. The chain of cause-and-effect, being the thread of life, has forked many times and spread itself over many patterns of circumstances, thus spreading the chance of survival for the whole concept of life. This has happened as a result of the shaping by The Selective Process. The key for the initiation of life is however possibly the opposite; abundant patterns of uniform repetition. From this single ideal circumstance for initial life, the life process has adjusted to an increasingly wider range of circumstances by aggregation of processes, plugging-in more and more capability for survival.
Evolution of life processes; DNA
DNA can be regarded as a memory structure and a library of best practices. The Selective Process can be seen as the source of memory. Memory can only develop in an unbroken thread of processing. Memory is a tool for life processes, to enable them to anticipate The Selective Process and in order to extend survival. Life is a process which acts in anticipation of its interaction with surrounding processes. The evolution of life moves towards an optimum in this anticipation. The Anticipation is made possible by the iterative character of the combination of The Fundamental Process of ΔF with The Selective Process and the derived structures of repetition in combination with a process called memory. In order for life to evolutionary develop, memory needs to develop. There is a need for memory with increased capability of anticipation, meaning increased knowledge about the to be expected interaction with surrounding processes. A key role for this memory is played by DNA.
Evolution of life processes; diversity
In biological evolution, the unit of development is species or populations, not individuals. It is species that survive or die out. “Survival of the fittest”, in evolutionary terms, is not about individuals being stronger than others. When it comes to evolution, the surviving fittest individuals are those who’s DNA contributes to the new surviving generations on the scale of the evolutionary process, which means measured over many generations on the scale of a species or a population of species. It is the traits of the species or population, in combination with the preferences of The Selective Process, which determines the result of the evolutionary process. The traits of the species are formed by the traits of individuals. In evolutionary terms, the relevancy of traits of individuals is in the contribution to the survival of the species or population, not in the survival of the individual itself. In order to determine the traits of species it is insufficient to look at the traits of one individual or at a relative small portion of the individuals of the population; one needs to take a sample which represents all the traits. Depending on the amount of diversity within the population at hand, this sample can be big or small, or can even include all individuals. Every small detail within the total package of traits of the species has potential impact on the newly formed generations and their ability to survive and produce new generations. Life is a process of anticipation of surrounding processes and all life forms are part of the life process that they stem from. All life forms are part of the chain of generations going back to that single source process. All life forms are taking part in the ongoing process of development of that single source process which develops continuously in its capability to survive. “Survival of the fittest” in evolutionary terms, needs to be seen in this context. In evolutionary terms, any individual being fitter than another has no relevancy unless it contributes to the survival of future generations of a species or population. Generally speaking, this often means that the contribution lies in the contribution to increase diversity. Generally speaking, the chances for survival of a species increases when the amount of distinct traits in the total assembly of available traits within the species, increases. More available traits means an increase of possibilities in “the toolbox” for adaptability in the process of anticipation of surrounding processes. In other words; more available traits within the mix of a population, means an increase of individual candidates for becoming “the fittest”.
Looking at bacteria, we see an ability to adapt to circumstances, resulting in immunity against certain antibiotics. This type of adaption is based on big numbers. Bacteria reproduce a-sexual by cellular division, producing clones. Generally speaking bacteria exist by millions and billions of individuals and are able to reproduce new generations within the hour. These numbers, in combination with increased exposure to circumstances, like antibiotics, enable the realistic chance of adaptation through ad random mutation. In this case the limiting factor in the ability to adapt, is likely to be in the limited input of change by ad random mutation. This limitation can be reduced by sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction introduces organized change in the iterations of generations and is a way of increasing the density of adaptive change in the processes of evolution. Sexual reproduction also seems to reduce the numbers in which reproduction is executed compared to a-sexual reproduction. Moreover, looking at sexual reproduction of many species, it is not randomly executed; partnering is a selective process and potential partners are picky. When DNA is sexually transferred, by means of mixing of DNA through fusion, into a new generation, 100% of the individuals of a species have specific DNA, which adds to the diversity of the species, as all individuals are unique (let alone twins and the likes). Sexual reproduction is an effective way of maximizing the capacity of a species for adjustment to circumstances, through diversity.
A reason for evolution to take place at the level of population or species and not at the level of individuals, is that a group of individuals, like a species, is able to hold a much bigger variety of properties/traits compared with an individual, especially when it comes to properties that are in contradiction with each other. This diversity is needed in order for the parent process to evolve. If all individuals are having all available traits, the mechanism of sexual reproduction will have no effect and won’t be any different from a-sexual reproduction. Without the presence of diversity, any reproduction results effectively in cloning, having little contribution to evolution as it is limited by the limited input of change by ad random mutation. In this context “survival of the fittest” is about diversity. Even if a population exists of only superheroes being the “fittest”, the population will not be able to survive if they are like clones of each other.
The Selective Process results in diversity caused by diversity in circumstances, resulting in specialism on the level of individual organisms. On the level of populations, selection results in an all-round capability for coping with an existing scale of different circumstances through the availability of diverse specialists. With iteration of replication of continuous differentiated units in place, survival has the tendency to improve. This is because changes are subject to a selective process, in which changes which are beneficial for survival, are selected to continue and because improvement is defined as beneficial for survival. Generations are selections of survival skills and new generations are the better aggregation of best practices.
Evolution of life processes; empowered by numbers
Evolution is the result of trial and error. The result of evolution of life may seem stunningly complex to us but it did not occur out of the blue. Stunningly complexity is the result of innumerous preceding versions being less stunning. The complexity is the result of innumerous attempts of trial-and-error, as all possible options are continuously being processed against the filter of The Selective Process, this, together with an unbroken thread of a process of anticipation, which secures its lessons learned in DNA. In this way the complexity slowly moves up the ladder, as with every step, new options become available to be selected to survive.
“Evolution” is the result of the evolutionary process. “The evolutionary process” is, in its fundamental form, a process which results in development towards adaption to The Selective Process*) and when concerning life*), it aims to optimize anticipation of The Selective Process.
“Life” is a process of anticipation of interaction with surrounding processes. (Or anticipation of reality, which reality can be described as The Generic Process following The Selective Process). Life is a process existing of a conglomeration of processes, which has some capability to adapt to circumstances for which it makes use of knowledge of the repetitive patterns of other processes. Life on earth, stores the knowledge of repetitive patterns in DNA. Life lives on anticipation of the repetitive structures of surrounding processes by means of extrapolation, leading to expectation. Expectation is used to anticipate The Selective Process, increasing the chance to survive The Selective Process. Expectation is stored in memory. Anticipation of The Selective Process is the difference between living processes and non-living processes. Non-living processes do follow The Selective Process but are not capable of anticipating The Selective Process. Life interacts with other processes by making use of memory structures and receptors. Part of the process of organic life-forms, is to develop generations in order to sustain and develop an unbroken thread of anticipation. Clarification: this definition of “life” concerns the process in general, it is not addressing the conscious activity of an individual from birth to death, which we also call life or a life. The life we humans live and experience is part of “life” and is as such only the top of the iceberg. Most of the processes which are part of our lives, are beyond our control and are running without us being aware of it, for example the processes within a cell. Yet, all these processes are processes of anticipation. This means that life’s anticipation is not necessarily an activity in our consciousness, not at all.
“Delta F” or “ΔF” is the elementary unit of interaction. ΔF is a single elementary portion of deviation, resulting in potential attraction or repulsion and can be regarded as the single elementary entity of our universe, which means that everything is built of ΔF. ΔF is not a stand-alone item, ΔF only exist in the context of a process. ΔF is a delta, an elementary, minimal, deviation, of something we don’t know. The deviation results in a force, in the situation of interaction with other ΔF. The elementary ΔF is being propagated by the Elementary Process and the interaction is the result of the Selective Process. The elementary ΔF can be seen as a unit of elementary deviation having 2 sides being each other’s counterpart, which 2 together add up to a balance, which equals no deviation. The elementary ΔF represents the law of conservation of energy; one elementary ΔF results in a process element of 0 energy, comparable with the sinus shape of a wave; one wave being the result of disruption with 2 peaks being each other’s opposites and as a whole resulting in a balance, representing the original state of 0 disruption. ΔF is like a Janus-face, 2 equal values being opposites that go together as one balance. An elementary delta can be compared with a credit or debit event in a double bookkeeping in which the balance of both sides of the bookkeeping is 0. Attraction and repulsion, or electrical charge, can be regarded as disbalance, an event in the bookkeeping while the bookkeeping as a whole, has a perfect balance of 0.
ΔF is in essence a potential deviation, a delta, which only becomes a force F due to preferences of the Selective Process. The preferences of the Selective Process are able to aggregate ΔF in a way that concentrates deviation or disruption, forming aggregations of processing ΔF, which represent energy, but the aggregated ΔF has its counterparts somewhere, in order to make up for any disbalance, resulting in total representation of balancing 0. Subsystems of the total system, which are in some state of balance, like matter, can be regarded as complicated structures of balancing ΔF, which structures are in fact processes of interaction. The balance, which make up the structure, is in fact an aggregation of continuous subprocesses of disbalance or interaction. The energy that mass represents, is the amount of interaction amongst ΔF, going on in the balanced structure or system that mass is. There is no such thing as particles or mass, other than ΔF or structures of ΔF. ΔF is revealed to us as it is detectable. ΔF is detectable because it is involved in a process of localized interaction in combination with a process of repetition. This means that our brains, in combinations with memory, can recognize it. ΔF can be regarded as the elementary driver for all processes, except for the Elementary- and the Selective Process. ΔF can be seen as an elementary amount of both and either repulsion and/or attraction. What is being attracted or repelled, is ΔF as well, be it as a structure of aggregated confined ΔF, or mass, interacting according to preferences of the Selective Process. The Selective Process consists of a set of fixed preferences, resulting in repetitive diversity, in the shape of aggregations of processing interaction of ΔF. The distribution of ΔF is initially made even by the Elementary Process and made uneven by the Selective Process.
In classical physics, the driver behind movement, is a force F. One can think of a force as the result of a preference, resulting in attraction or repulsion. As such, a force works in a binary-like environment, with balance as a third option. One can regard balance as non-elementary and the result of a combination of 2 elementary parts (ΔF). On the elementary level, there is no balance, only attraction and repulsion. In our world, all is a process or part of a system of processes. The most fundamental “thing” in our world is …. a process. One can say that ΔF is the most fundamental thing and that ΔF is not a process, but ΔF only exists as deviation as a result of a process (the Elementary Process) and ΔF is meaningless to us without a process of repetition (the Generic Process). All we observe is processes built on repetition. A process without repetition cannot be observed, as observation is based on recognition and memory. A process is a sequence of cause-and-effect. One thing leads to another and so on. This happens in fixed patterns due to the Selective Process, which we recognize as laws of nature. The sequence of cause-and-effect is due to the Generic Process. The Generic Process is formed by the combination of the Elementary Process and the Selective Process. The Generic Process can be seen as the continuous reconfiguration of structures of aggregated ΔF or in other words as the continuous transformation of energy or in other words as the continuous interaction of ΔF. Energy exists of forces, of F. On the elementary level, there is no such thing as F, being a steady force. On the elementary level, there is continuous change; ΔF. ΔF can be seen as the result of a process of continuous switching from a deviation to the opposite and back, comparable with AC power. One can think of the elementary level of things, as a process of continuous interaction between ΔF, with ΔF being the elementary building block for F and ΔF being the smallest portion of deviation resulting in the smallest portion of preference (F). This Generic Process acts in the context of the law of conservation of energy and with a process speed of c, the c from E=mc2. The driver of the continuity is the Elementary Process which can be seen as a process of propagation of ΔF. The Selective Process takes the ΔF from the Elementary Process as input and shapes the elementary ΔF into a variety of structures, according fixed preferences, which we call the laws of physics.
Distinct ΔF can result in attraction or repulsion. ΔF has a dualistic character, the nature of which depends on the situation, on the type of interaction. An example of distinct ΔF is a photon. A photon of light can be absorbed or reflected, depending on the situation, on the type of interaction. The behavior of the photon however, is consistent. Depending on the type of interaction, a photon of light will always be absorbed or reflected in the same manner. It is the Selective Process which is in the lead, not the photon. According to quantum mechanics, a photon has another dualistic character, being both particle and wave. The photon(electromagnetic = dualistic) wave looks like the waves we know in media like sound waves or waves in water, but light is not necessarily propagated in a medium like air or water. In that sense, the wave is its own medium; a particle called a photon. This particle describes a wave pattern. The wave pattern is due to a sequential propagating process in combination with a rotating process, which combination results in a helix. The particle is an elementary ΔF, having a frequency of interchanging deviation (potential attraction and repulsion), which is propagated with speed c.
A chair, is a process but we see a chair as the product of the process. What we see is somewhat comparable with a hologram. When we see a hologram we realize that the image we see, is a trick of light. Likewise the chair that we see is a kind of trick of light, but we do not realize it. The trick of light of the chair, reveals to us a chair-shaped process of ΔF. We see the chair, as the light bounces off the chair. The light bounces off the chair, in a similar way as when we touch the chair and find that we cannot penetrate the chair. In both cases the dynamics are due to the repulsive forces represented by the chair. We see the chair as an object, made out of wood or iron perhaps, but in fact it is made out of forces. The chair is made of processing ΔF.
“The Selective Process” refers to a mechanism which occurs in nature, in which mechanism, consistent preferences or “laws of nature”, determine the course of cause-and-effect, resulting in patterns of repetition due to the consistent nature of the preferences. An example of a manifestation of the Selective Process is “Natural Selection” in life ecosystems. In fact, all patterns of cause-and-effect are the result of manifestations of the Selective Process. These patterns (being processes) include for example the Chemical Elements, the stars and planets, the wind, the kitchen table and your laptop computer and in fact everything else which we detect as the world around us, including ourselves. It is all these things and all the interaction between these things, that are processes of cause-and-effect, as patterns and structures of repetition. All exists to us because of it being repetitive and not being ad random and unwed. The driver for all things, known to us, to be repetitive and not being ad random and unwed, is the Selective Process. All things known to us, are the result of the shaping of the ad random process being input, into consistent selections of repetition, as output. E=mc2 is the result of the Selective Process in which c represents the ad random Process, c2 is the repetition, being a constant acceleration or intensification of c, where c is output of the ad random process of ΔF, becoming input of the Selective Process, and being redirected into rotational cycles of repetition, represented by c2 and thus creating spatial structures of repetition and dimensions. M is the amount of these spatial structures of repetition, forming patterns of structures, all being compliant with the Selective Process. The Selective Process is responsible for the consistent “laws of nature” as well as the processes which are responsible for the formation of mass. All this in accordance with E=mc2 and the law of conservation of energy.
“The Elementary Process” is a process of generating and propagating elementary ΔF. The Elementary Process is a process which deals with the elementary ΔF, without having any interaction. The concept of “The Elementary Process” is derived from the notion of an elementary building block “ΔF” and the supposed requirement of a source and takes into account concepts as “the law of conservation of energy” and “speed c”. One can think of the process of generating ΔF as a process of duplicating the elementary ΔF. This seems to violate the law of conservation of energy, but not necessarily so. In case the law of conservation of energy only applies to the interaction of ΔF, it is not applicable to The Elementary Process. Actually it probably still is applicable, but it is not relevant. The interaction of ΔF starts to be relevant in “The Fundamental Process”. Generating ΔF or duplication of ΔF is in effect an energy neutral activity, as an element of ΔF has a total energy balance of 0, being the result of 2 opposite deltas. The Elementary Process can be regarded as a binary process. The deltas of ΔF only get their meaning of attraction and repulsion, through The Selective Process, which determines the fixed patterns of interaction and courses of cause-and-effect. What we see as energy, is unbalanced ΔF and aggregation of unbalanced ΔF. As The Elementary Process does not involve interaction of ΔF, the law of conservation of energy is not relevant for The Elementary Process. The Elementary Process is a process of evenly distributed ΔF in its elementary form. Within The Elementary Process, unlike the result of The Selective Process, there is no aggregation or concentration of ΔF, other than radiation. The Elementary Process of ΔF is of a binary character and has no more diversity than one fundamental delta. The Elementary Process does not need energy (being interaction of ΔF) to progress. A process (any process) by itself does not need energy (ΔF), it is the change in the process (interaction) that needs energy. Without interaction, a process can last forever. We do not know of any process without interaction, except for The Elementary Process, which is only visible to us via the interaction of The Selective Process. An example of The Elementary Process, or something closely related to it, is a ray of light or of any other frequency of radiation. Everything we know is a process and everything we know is part of an elementary process which we can refer to as The Elementary Process. The Elementary Process can be seen as a process without interaction and rather a process of just action, as a driving force, or an engine delivering input for a secondary process which can be seen as The Selective Process and which is responsible for specific interaction. The Selective Process is responsible for the shaping of the initial elementary ΔF into local patterns of repetition which are detectable to us. The combination of The Elementary Process, The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process results in a process of continuous change and the continuous shaping of ΔF into structures of repetition. The combination of the 3 processes is called “The Generic Process”. The Elementary Process produces ΔF continuously, the result being endless repetition of a single elementary delta, being propagated, possibly resulting in what we see as the expanding of the universe.
“The Generic Process” is formed by the combination of the Fundamental Process and the Selective Process and results in a process of continuous organized change and the continuous shaping of ΔF into structures of repetition. The Generic Process is the chain of events, being action and reaction, by cause and effect, which forms reality and space-time, in the past, the present and the future. The Generic Process is visible to us, detectable, where it has repeating patterns. All that we can see as the world around us, exists in abundant plural and behaves in accordance with The fixed patterns of The Selective Process or in other words; in accordance with the laws of physics. Everything we know is part of a process, everything is a process, everything is connected to a sequence of cause-and-effect through interaction. All detectable processes are part of and built on top of the Generic Process, being the result of the Fundamental Process in combination with the Selective Process. There is no such thing as a stand-alone process; all processes have interaction with other processes, as all processes are part of the Generic Process, a process of continuous reconfiguration of patterns of aggregated ΔF. Since there is always some interaction going on, and regarding the law of conservation of energy, there cannot be a perpetuum mobile, except for the system of the Generic Process itself, as a whole, as a single system of interaction.
Everything we know is repetition; in our world, there is no such thing as new, except new combinations of repetition. A possible way of explaining the universe is to see the universe being ruled by 3 processes, together forming one Generic Process; process number 4. Process number 1 is The Elementary Process and is duplicating and propagating ΔF, creating sequential repetition, a process having speed c, possibly somehow expanding the universe. The result of this process can be seen as new, as in newly formed repetition, but “the new” is not present as such in our daily lives. The reason this expanding new universe is not present in our daily lives, is that we exist of matter, being local structures of rotational redirected c, part of the process number 4, The Generic Process. To get from process number 1 to process number 4, we need process number 2 and 3; The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process. The Selective Process uses instances of the result from Process number 2, The Fundamental Process, as input. Process number 2 introduces interaction between ΔF, which is absent in process number 1. The interaction of process number 2 is input for process number 3 which introduces fixed preferences of interaction. This results in repetition introducing repetitive structures of interacting ΔF. The 3 processes, The Elementary Process, The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process together form process number 4; The Generic Process. The Generic Process needs process number 1 as the engine and driving force, process number 2 as source for interaction and process number 3 as the mechanism for introducing structures in diversity. What happens in Process number 1 and 2 is processing with speed c. What is present as visible in our daily lives, is part of Process number 4. The Generic Process is a process of continuous transformation of the result of Process number 1. Process number 3 involves the redirection of c from a single-directional propagating process into a multi-directional propagating process. Our daily lives are happening in the context of process 4, in the context of a 3-dimensional world. Within this Process number 4, the interaction of ΔF is being transformed continuously into a new configuration and at the same time, ΔF is being conserved to the same amount.
The description of the 4 processes just mentioned, is derived from the philosophical quest for the origin of things. Following a thought-experiment of some kind of reversed engineering, this quest leads to the idea of an elementary unit of which the world around us, or at least it’s matter, is made of. The elementary unit in this context is ΔF. In order to defend this idea of ΔF, it is necessary that it is consistent with the description of our daily reality. For this, the description of the 4 processes takes care of the connection between the elementary level of things and our daily reality, in a consistent way. The concepts of The Elementary Process, The Fundamental Process, The Selective Process and The Generic Process, together form a description of daily live physics or reality, while using the concept of elementary ΔF.
The Generic Process, results in iterative processes and in derived repetitive structures of interaction of ΔF.
“The Fundamental Process” is the process of fundamental interaction between the output of instances of The Elementary Process. The Fundamental Process is the process of ad random interaction of ΔF which is the input for The Selective Process. The interaction of ΔF in The Fundamental Process is of an ad random character, the interaction not having specific patterns of repetition. Patterns of repetition are the product of The Selective Process. The combination of The Fundamental Process and The Selective Process results in The Generic Process. The Fundamental Process is the elementary form of interaction of ΔF. The Elementary Process is responsible for the propagation of ΔF but in The Elementary Process there is no interaction between ΔF as it is a one-dimensional sequential process. While the interaction of ΔF is manifested to us by structures of repetition, the interaction of ΔF is also happening in an ad random manner, leaving no structures of repetition. The interaction of ΔF is manifested to us by structures of repetition formed by The Selective Process. Interaction of ΔF formed by The Selective Process is a subset of the interaction of ΔF formed by The Fundamental Process. Interaction of ΔF formed by The Fundamental Process has no structures of repetition unless it is selected as such by The Selective Process. The interaction of ΔF formed by The Fundamental Process occurs as a result of instances of The Elementary Process running into each other. This happens in space where instances of the one-dimensional sequential process of The Elementary Process are scattered in all directions. In this situation ΔF meets ΔF and starts to interact resulting in resonation or annihilation and possible in-betweens. All processing is having a process speed the equivalent of c. The interaction of ΔF in The Fundamental Process is of an ad random character resulting in elementary chaos; there are no patterns of repetition involved. Without the presence of patterns of repetition, The Fundamental Process is not detectable for us. What is detectable for us is interaction of ΔF coming from The Fundamental Process and being processed by The Selective Process to become patterns of repetition of interaction of ΔF.
“Interaction” is fundamentally what happens when 2 or more forces of ΔF meet or on a bigger scale, what happens when 2 or more processes meet.
“Diversity” is differentiation in patterns of repetition. Diversity consists of distinct combinations of repetitive structures.