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E=mc2

Introduction

This essay is an attempt to clarify the well-known equation E=mc2. Before getting there, some ideas on basic physics are introduced and a few definitions are set. Not the ordinary stuff though, things are presented a bit differently. In this essay the emphasis lies on a conceptual description of physics rather than a quantified description of physics. The mathematical approach of physics is mostly avoided.

What follows in this essay is thoughts, not science but thoughts. The statements made in this essay, are not pretending to be true or proven to be so, they are just thoughts. Moreover, these thoughts are snapshots of an ever-ongoing process of evolving insights and therefor subject to change. These thoughts are believed to possibly be somewhat provocative at times or just controversial perhaps. They are not meant to be so. The thoughts are meant to be inspirational. They are meant to shed light on matters in a way which makes people look at these matters in a different manner. Perhaps the essay can be inspirational and input to other thoughts, thus yielding new insights. New insights, having some purpose, great or small, or perhaps with no purpose at all. In any case, knowing that this essay is a bit outside the box and not necessarily very accurate, I hope this essay is received with some mildness and some kind of appreciation.

*) means; see paragraph “8 definitions of terms”.

Symbols used:

ν, frequency

Δ, delta (deviation)

λ, wavelength

E, energy

c, speed of light

m or M, mass

F, force

h, Planck’s constant

4 Basics:

In order to increase the chances of the reader making sense of the thoughts and ideas in this essay, we will get straight to the point. Actually, some points that is, 4 to be precise. They may not be very self-explanatory at first sight but hopefully, after reading the essay, they become clearer.

1) Everything is a process and as such, part of The Fundamental Process *).

The Fundamental Process is the process of interaction of ΔF. Everything is continuously altering from being a cause to being an effect and v.v. There is no such thing as stand-still or rest. What we see as stand-still is

  • Relative movement in relation to surroundings. Objects seen as in rest, have the same speed as the frame of reference.
  • A balanced structure of rotational movement. Objects, whether we see them as in motion or not, are fundamentally made of movement/a process. The structures in objects are made of high-speed movement or frequency, somewhat comparable with a still image on a tv screen which actually consist of pixels or lines, changing in a high frequency. 

2) Everything we detect is repetition.

Everything we detect is processes of repetition. This elementary repetition can be sequential and/or rotational. The distinction can be described as Copying Repetition and Rotating Repetition, in this essay the term “repetition” can refer to either of them. This repetition is based on an elementary cause-and-effect sequence having an elementary propagation of c. Repetition is the result of The Elementary process *) and The Selective Process *).

3) Everything is Δ.

There is no such thing as particles or mass, other than ΔF *) or a structure of ΔF. ΔF stands for fundamental deviation or fundamental force. ΔF is the driver of all processes. ΔF can be seen as an elementary amount of either repulsion or attraction. The strange thing is, that what is being attracted or repelled, is ΔF as well, be it as a structure of confined ΔF. While everything is repetition, repetition is a process; the repetition of Δ. Possibly of just one Δ, creating a binary universe. Processes are using combinations of sequences of ΔF, forming arrays, which arrays are repetitive yet possibly distinctive from other repetitive combinations, thus creating diversity out of the binary uniformity of elementary ΔF.   

4) Everything is connected.

There is no such thing as a stand-alone process or a closed system, except perhaps the overall Process itself. Everything around us is part of the overall Process and acts within that context. This is why there is no such thing as a perpetuum mobile. (Except perhaps the overall Process itself.) 

All there is, is repetition, being utilized to form diverse structures in a process of ongoing transformation practising the laws of physics, thus following the fixed preferences of laws of physics and the law of conservation of E. This Process builds complex structures of diversity, structures which maintain and develop in the process of fixed preferences. Forces (F), attraction (F), repulsion (F), energy (E), mass (M), the speed of light (c), all is part of one and the same thing; repetition. And only because of repetition, these things are detectable to us and “meaningful” to us. Us being part of repetition ourselves of course, and enabled to detect the world around us, by memory AO.

8 definitions of terms

In order to further increase the ability of the reader to follow the thoughts and ideas in this essay, it is deemed necessary to set a few definitions or explanations of terms, as they are used in this essay. These terms are mostly well-known terms, but the definition or explanation of the terms, as they are used in this essay, may be a bit out of the ordinary.

  • F and ΔF

Wikipedia: “In physics, a force is any influence that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. It is measured in the SI unit of newton (N).” “A newton is defined as the force which gives a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 metre per second, per second, 1 kgm/s2.”  “Force is represented by the symbol F (formerly P).”

In this essay the symbol F is used to address the term “force”. In this essay F is used to refer to the conceptual term of force, as well as to refer to the involved quantity of force. F represents a delta(Δ), a deviation. This deviation results in attraction or repulsion. In addition to and in accordance with, the definition of Wikipedia, we can say that F is defined as a measurement for mass being accelerated, or a measurement for acceleration of mass. F is a quantification of a cause, measured by its effect. F is not seen as a process but as a driver of a process, at a given time, as in a snapshot. It is the result of F over time, that makes it possible to quantify F, retrospectively. F is the driver of the process of acceleration. In the Wikipedia definition, F depends on a relation with acceleration of mass. The Elementary Process (see next term), only has one speed, no acceleration. F, as in any type of force, is not applicable to The Elementary Process, except for the single elementary ΔF. F only applies on mass, which is a form of The Fundamental Process*). More accurately put; F only applies on F, in the context of interaction. There seems to be no relevancy in a force without any mass involved to be attracted or repelled. But mass itself is a structure of forces. All we know is forces; our world is a binary world of attraction and repulsion, having patterns of repetition. It is the repetition that makes up our detectable world. A force is only a force in interaction with other forces, in combination with a repetitive pattern. F is an aggregated Δ, a Δ like + or -, resulting in concentration or dilution, in attraction or repulsion, depending on preferences. Forces are not existing as stand-alone entities; they only exist as interaction and they only exist when repetition is involved. F interacts with F. Wikipedia’s definition of F says that F interacts with m but, as explained later-on in this essay, m is actually F. Forces are the result of repetition, and/or the other way around. A force acts like a local state of preference. A force results in attraction/repulsion of m, in a certain direction. In any way, a force is a Δ and responsible for transfer of ΔE, either with or without movement of objects of m. F is the key ingredient of The Fundamental Process, in distinction to The Elementary Process. F is the agent of the laws of physics or the agent of The Selective Process.

“Delta F” or “ΔF” is the elementary unit of interaction. ΔF is a single elementary portion of deviation, resulting in potential attraction or repulsion and can be regarded as the single elementary entity of our universe, which means that everything is built of ΔF. ΔF is not a stand-alone item, ΔF only exist in the context of a process. ΔF is a delta, an elementary, minimal, deviation, of something we don’t know. The deviation results in a force, in the situation of interaction with other ΔF. The elementary ΔF is being propagated by the Elementary Process and the interaction is the result of The Selective Process. The elementary ΔF can be seen as a unit of elementary deviation having 2 sides being each other’s counterpart, which 2 together add up to a balance, which equals no deviation. The elementary ΔF represents the law of conservation of energy; one elementary ΔF results in a process element of 0 energy, comparable with the sinus shape of a wave; one wave being the result of disruption with 2 peaks being each other’s opposites and as a whole resulting in a balance, representing the original state of 0 disruption. ΔF is like a Janus-face, 2 equal values being opposites that go together as one balance. An elementary delta can be compared with a credit or debit event in a double bookkeeping in which the balance of both sides of the bookkeeping is 0. Attraction and repulsion, or electrical charge, can be regarded as disbalance, an event in the bookkeeping while the bookkeeping as a whole, has a perfect balance of 0.

ΔF is in essence a potential deviation, a delta, which only becomes a force F due to preferences of The Selective Process. The preferences of The Selective Process are able to aggregate ΔF in a way that concentrates deviation or disruption, forming aggregations of processing ΔF, which represent energy, but the aggregated ΔF has its counterparts somewhere, in order to make up for any disbalance, resulting in total representation of balancing 0. Subsystems of the total system, which are in some state of balance, like matter, can be regarded as complicated structures of balancing ΔF, which structures are in fact processes of interaction. The balance, which make up the structure, is in fact an aggregation of continuous subprocesses of disbalance or interaction. The energy that mass represents, is the amount of interaction amongst ΔF, going on in the balanced structure or system that mass is. There is no such thing as particles or mass, other than ΔF or structures of ΔF. ΔF is revealed to us as it is detectable. ΔF is detectable because it is involved in a process of localized interaction in combination with a process of repetition. This means that our brains, in combinations with memory, can recognize it. ΔF can be regarded as the elementary driver for all processes, except for The Elementary- and The Selective Process. ΔF can be seen as an elementary amount of both and either repulsion and/or attraction. What is being attracted or repelled, is ΔF as well, be it as a structure of aggregated confined ΔF, or mass, interacting according to preferences of The Selective Process. The Selective Process consists of a set of fixed preferences, resulting in repetitive diversity, in the shape of aggregations of processing interaction of ΔF. The distribution of ΔF is initially made even by the Elementary Process and made uneven by The Selective Process.

In classical physics, the driver behind movement, is a force F. One can think of a force as the result of a preference, resulting in attraction or repulsion. As such, a force works in a binary-like environment, with balance as a third option. One can regard balance as non-elementary and the result of a combination of 2 elementary parts (ΔF). On the elementary level, there is no balance, only attraction and repulsion. In our world, all is a process or part of a system of processes. The most fundamental “thing” in our world is …. a process. One can say that ΔF is the most fundamental thing and that ΔF is not a process, but ΔF only exists as deviation as a result of a process (the Elementary Process) and ΔF is meaningless to us without a process of repetition (The Fundamental Process). All we observe is processes built on repetition. A process without repetition cannot be observed, as observation is based on recognition and memory. A process is a sequence of cause-and-effect. One thing leads to another and so on. This happens in fixed patterns due to The Selective Process, which we recognize as laws of nature. The sequence of cause-and-effect is due to The Fundamental Process. The Fundamental Process is formed by the combination of The Elementary Process and The Selective Process. The Fundamental Process can be seen as the continuous reconfiguration of structures of aggregated ΔF or in other words as the continuous transformation of energy or in other words as the continuous interaction of ΔF.  Energy exists of forces, of F. On the elementary level, there is no such thing as F, being a steady force. On the elementary level, there is continuous change; ΔF. ΔF can be seen as the result of a process of continuous switching from a deviation to the opposite and back, comparable with AC power. One can think of the elementary level of things, as a process of continuous interaction between ΔF, with ΔF being the elementary building block for F and ΔF being the smallest portion of deviation resulting in the smallest portion of preference (F). This fundamental process acts in the context of the law of conservation of energy and with a process speed of c, the c from  E=mc2. The driver of the continuity is The Elementary Process which can be seen as a process of propagation of ΔF. The Selective Process takes the ΔF from The Elementary Process as input and shapes the elementary ΔF into a variety of structures, according fixed preferences, which we call the laws of physics.

Distinct ΔF can result in attraction or repulsion. ΔF has a dualistic character, the nature of which depends on the situation, on the type of interaction. An example of distinct ΔF is a photon. A photon of light can be absorbed or reflected, depending on the situation, on the type of interaction. The behavior of the photon however, is consistent. Depending on the type of interaction, a photon of light will always be absorbed or reflected in the same manner. It is The Selective Process which is in the lead, not the photon. According to quantum mechanics, a photon has another dualistic character, being both particle and wave. The photon(electromagnetic = dualistic) wave looks like the waves we know in media like sound waves or waves in water, but light is not necessarily propagated in a medium like air or water. In that sense, the wave is its own medium; a particle called a photon. This particle describes a wave pattern. The wave pattern is due to a sequential propagating process in combination with a rotating process, which combination results in a helix. The particle is an elementary ΔF, having a frequency of interchanging deviation (potential attraction and repulsion), which is propagated with speed c.  

A chair, is a process but we see a chair as the product of the process. What we see is somewhat comparable with a hologram. When we see a hologram we realize that the image we see, is a trick of light. Likewise the chair that we see is a kind of trick of light, but we do not realize it. The trick of light of the chair, reveals to us a chair-shaped process of ΔF. We see the chair, as the light bounces off the chair. The light bounces off the chair, in a similar way as when we touch the chair and find that we cannot penetrate the chair. In both cases the dynamics are due to the repulsive forces represented by the chair. We see the chair as an object, made out of wood or iron perhaps, but in fact it is made out of forces. The chair is made of processing ΔF.

  • The Elementary Process.

Wikipedia: “A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic.”

This essay states that everything we know is a process and that everything we know is part of an elementary process referred to as “The Elementary Process”. The concept of “The Elementary Process” is derived from the notion of an elementary building block “ΔF” and the supposed requirement of a source and takes into account concepts as “the law of conservation of energy” and “speed c”. The Elementary Process is a process which deals with the elementary ΔF, without having any interaction. The Elementary Process is a process of generating and propagating elementary ΔF. One can think of the process of generating ΔF as a process of duplicating the elementary ΔF. This seems to violate the law of conservation of energy, but not necessarily so. In case the law of conservation of energy only applies to The Selective Process*) or, in other words, to the interaction of ΔF, it is not applicable to The Elementary Process. More accurately put, it is applicable, but it is not relevant. Generating ΔF or duplication of ΔF is in effect an energy neutral activity, as an element of ΔF has a total energy balance of 0, being the result of 2 opposite deltas. The Elementary Process can be regarded as a binary process. The deltas of ΔF only get their meaning of attraction and repulsion, through The Selective Process, which determines the fixed patterns of interaction and courses of cause-and-effect. What we see as energy, is unbalanced ΔF and aggregation of unbalanced ΔF. As The Elementary Process does not involve interaction of ΔF, the law of conservation of energy is not relevant for The Elementary Process. The Elementary Process is a process of evenly distributed ΔF in its elementary form. Within The Elementary Process, unlike the result of The Selective Process, there is no aggregation or concentration of ΔF, other than radiation. The Elementary Process of ΔF is of a binary character and has no more diversity than one fundamental delta. The Elementary Process does not need energy (being interaction of ΔF) to progress. A process (any process) by itself does not need energy (ΔF), it is the change in the process (interaction) that needs energy. Without interaction, a process can last forever. We do not know of any process without interaction, except for The Elementary Process, which is only visible to us via the interaction of The Selective Process. An example of The Elementary Process, or something closely related to it, is a ray of light or a ray of any other frequency of radiation. Everything we know is a process and everything we know is part of an elementary process which we can refer to as The Elementary Process.

  • The Selective Process.

refers to a mechanism which occurs in nature, in which mechanism, fixed preferences or “laws of nature”, determine the course of cause-and-effect, resulting in patterns of repetition due to the consistent nature of the preferences. The patterns of repetition are patterns of interaction between instances of ΔF. An example of a manifestation of The Selective Process is “Natural Selection” in life ecosystems. In fact, all patterns of cause-and-effect are the result of manifestations of The Selective Process. These patterns (being processes) include for example the Chemical Elements, the stars and planets, the wind, the kitchen table, a computer and in fact everything else which we detect as the world around us, including ourselves. It is all these things and all the interaction between these things, that are processes of cause-and-effect, as patterns and structures of repetition, forming systems which are bound by laws of nature. All exists, as revealed to us, because of its repetitive nature, not being ad random and unwed. The driver for all things that are known to us and therefor are to be repetitive and not being ad random and unwed, is The Selective Process. All things known to us, are the result of the shaping of the result of the ad random sequential binary Elementary Process*). The Elementary Process is regarded as the source of ΔF, the result of which process is input to The Selective Process. The combination of The Elementary Process and The Selective Process results into consistent selections of repetition, as output. E=mc2 is the result of The Selective Process in which c represents the ad random binary Elementary Process. C2 represents localized repetition, being a constant acceleration or intensifying of local c, instigated by The Selective Process. M is an aggregated amount of these spatial structures of repetition, introducing a 3rd dimension in the processes forming systems of patterns of repetitive structures, all being compliant with The Selective Process. The Selective Process is responsible for the consistent “laws of nature” as well as the processes which are responsible for the formation of mass. All this in accordance with E=mc2 and the law of conservation of energy.

Interaction is what happens when 2 or more forces (ΔF) meet. The Elementary Process does not facilitate forces to meet. Interaction is due to The Selective Process. On the elementary level of ΔF and The Elementary Process, which is a process of repetitive elementary cause-and-effect, having the minimal elementary binary diversity, there is no interaction. What we observe as interaction is the result of filtered ad randomness. Initially, in The Elementary Process, there is no such thing as preferences in attraction or repulsion. The Elementary Process only propagates elementary attraction or repulsion, in a straight forward sequence of cause-and-effect, as in radiation. It is The Selective Process which causes disruption in this serene pattern, by introducing preferences in attraction or repulsion, causing aggregation of specific patterns of ΔF interaction. The essential property of The Selective Process is that its preferences are fixed; they do not change. The preferences of The Selective Process are known to us as the laws of physics. The serene, monotone patterns of The Elementary Process are disrupted by The Selective Process but in a consistent manner, resulting in patterns of repetition and diversity, in patterns and structures. The Selective Process acts as filter which seemingly results in typical interaction leading to typical patterns of cause-and-effect. The Selective Process is not the driver of cause-and-effect, the driver is The Elementary Process. A sequence of cause-and-effect is not a fixed program as in “if this then that”. Although the sequence of cause-and-effect is following a fixed pattern, the sequence does not follow this pattern straight away, the course of the sequence is due to a filter with a fixed setting. In every step of the process of a cause-and-effect sequence, the driver of the process will not go straight away to the next known step, instead the driver, which is The Elementary Process, will perform the standard processing of ΔF, having speed c and not having any interaction or preferences. This is the input for the next step in the cause-and-effect sequence, resulting in the next step once the input matches the filter of The Selective Process. In this time-laps of one step of cause-and-effect to another, due to preferences of attraction or repulsion, disruption of the output of the standard Elementary Process takes place, caused by and being the input for The Selective Process. In this time-laps a variety of all possible options of interactions of ΔF takes place, until the option is reached which fits the filter of The Selective Process, after which the same happens again in order to get to the next step of the sequence of cause-and-effect . What happens in the time-laps is “The Fundamental Process”*) at work. The Fundamental Process consists of the combination of The Elementary Process and The Selective Process. During the time-lapse The Elementary Process is at work, like it is always and everywhere, being a continuous process of propagation of ΔF. During this process, The Selective Process takes the output of The Elementary Process as input and starts to validate the input on the basis of the fixed preferences. The Selective Process creates a dynamic of interaction between ΔF through specific fixed patterns of attraction and repulsion, filtering out all other options of attraction and repulsion, after the validation. The interaction of ΔF is due to an encounter of an instance of The Elementary Process with one or more other instances of The Elementary Process. The validation process takes time, but not an awful lot in our experience, as the process takes its course with the speed c. The Selective Process can be seen as a disruptive process on The Elementary level and as a process organizing the disruption into order, an order of divers groups of structures. The underlying Elementary Process of binary ad randomness, acts with a process speed of c. The interaction we see, is the filtered result of a process of ad randomness, having consistent results forming patterns of repetition. These patterns are formed in a delayed speed of c as the filtering is time (meaning process-time c) consuming. The filtering brings about a selective orchestra of interaction of ΔF, yielding repetitive structures of ΔF; the formation of mass. This mechanism brings about the inertia of mass. Movement of mass requires, on the fundamental level, a restructuring of the original structure of processes that mass is, which takes more effort (ΔF) for bigger structures of mass than for smaller. Movement of a structure/system of mass, is the equivalent of a rebuild of that structure.

An example of the effect of The Selective Process is; surface. Objects of mass are consistent structures of attraction. But at the surface of such objects, we experience repulsion. Gravity pulls us to the earth’ surface, but we stand on solid ground because of repulsion. In a lake of water we sink, but if we dive in it flat horizontally, we will experience painful repulsion. The dynamics of attraction and repulsion is complex and diverse, but always consistent. Surfaces are manifestations of The Selective Process, showing distinct local interaction of ΔF. We are drawn to the surface of the earth by gravitational force and we are repelled by the surface of the earth so we don’t sink into the earth to be on our way to the center of it. We ourself have a surface as well, which repels the surface of the earth, so when we stand on earth’s ground, the ground does not penetrate our body. Our body is a system of cohesive ΔF processes, of which cohesion is derived from gravity, not earth’s gravity but the gravity of our body itself. The dynamics of the example of us standing on the surface of the earth, is a profound example of selectivity of The Selective Process. The fact that we can walk on the surface of the earth the way we do, is due to the specific combination of attraction and repulsion. The 2 bodies, earth and man, stick together by forces of attraction, which work with relatively long range (the range depending on the amount of aggregation of mass) and weakness. The 2 bodies do not mix due to forces of repulsion, which forces work with relatively short range (on the atomic level) and being relatively strong in this range, making a defense for penetration.

  • The Fundamental Process.

is formed by the combination of The Elementary Process and The Selective Process and results in a process of continuous change and the continuous shaping of ΔF into structures of repetition. The Fundamental Process is the chain of events, being action and reaction, by cause and effect, which forms reality and space-time, in the past, the present and the future. The Fundamental Process is visible to us, detectable, where it has repeating patterns. All that we can see as the world around us, exists in abundant plural and behaves in accordance with the repeating patterns of The Selective Process; in accordance with the laws of physics. Everything we know is part of a process, everything is a process, everything is connected to a sequence of cause-and-effect through interaction. All processes are part of and built on top of The Fundamental Process, being the result of The Elementary Process in combination with The Selective Process. There is no such thing as a stand-alone process; all processes have interaction with other processes, as all processes are part of The Fundamental Process, a process of continuous reconfiguration of patterns of aggregated ΔF. Since there is always some interaction going on, and regarding the law of conservation of energy, there cannot be a perpetuum mobile, except for The Fundamental Process itself, as a whole.

Everything we know is repetition; in our world, there is no such thing as new, except new combinations of repetition. A possible way of explaining the universe is to see the universe being ruled by 2 processes, together forming one Fundamental Process. Process number 1 is The Elementary Process and is duplicating and propagating ΔF, creating repetition, a process having speed c, possibly somehow expanding the universe. The result of this process can be seen as new, as in newly formed repetition, but “the new” is not present as such in our daily lives. The reason this expanding new universe is not present in our daily lives, is that we exist of matter, being local structures of rotational redirected c, part of the Process number 2, The Selective Process, which uses instances of the result from Process number 1. What happens in Process number 1 is processing with speed c. What is present in our daily lives, is part of Process number 2. Process number 2 has the result of Process number 1 as input. Process number 2 is a process of continuous transformation of the result of Process number 1. Process number 2 involves the redirection of c from a single-directional propagating process into a multi-directional propagating process. Our daily lives are happening in the context of process 2, in the context of a 3-dimensional world. Within this Process number 2, the interaction of ΔF is being transformed continuously into a new configuration and at the same time, ΔF is being conserved to the same amount.

The description of The Elementary Process and The Selective Process is derived from the philosophical quest for the origin of things. Following a thought-experiment of some kind of reversed engineering, this quest leads to the idea of an elementary unit of which the world around us, or at least it’s matter, is made of. The elementary unit in this context is ΔF. In order to defend this idea of ΔF, it is necessary that it is consistent with the description of our daily reality. For this, the description of The Selective Process and of The Selective Process takes care of the connection between the elementary level of things and our daily reality, in a consistent way. The concepts of The Fundamental Process, The Elementary Process and The Selective Process together, form a description of daily live physics or reality, while using the concept of elementary ΔF.

  • E (ΔE)

Wikipedia: “In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to a body or physical system to perform work on the body, or to heat it. The unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of one metre against a force of one newton.”  

In this essay the symbol E is used to address the term “energy”. In this essay E is being used to refer to the conceptual term of energy, as well as to refer to the involved quantity of energy. Just like F, E represents a delta(Δ), a deviation. The deviation results in a process driven by attraction or repulsion. The throughput of this process is called E. As E is a throughput, E is the result of a Δ, the same Δ as the one responsible for F. While F represents the amount of Δ, being the driver of the process of interaction, E represents the total result of this process or the amount of interaction. In addition to the definition of E in Wikipedia, combined with the definition of F in Wikipedia, we can say that 1 joule of energy is equivalent to 1 kilogram accelerating with 1 meter per second, per second, resulting in 1 metre of distance. This makes a Joule the equivalent of 1 kg⋅m/s2⋅m. The difference between E and F, is distance(displacement), as the effect being part of the throughput of a process. In other words; F is cause and E is aggregated effect. Although F is expressed as the effect it causes, E is the aggregated effect. E is an assembly of effect, a distinct part of The Fundamental Process. The relation between E and F is E=F⋅s. (energy=force times displacement). Energy is the result of force; energy is the outcome of the process which forces are part of. Forces are part of repetition, of continuous patterns of change. Energy is a measure for the interaction between forces. E quantifies this interaction which quantity is the result of the process in which patterns of repetition are broken and re-formed into new patterns of repetition. In this essay, F is regarded as the input for all processes. All processes that are part of The Fundamental Process that is. These processes include “work”, being an example of transformation of repetitive structures through interaction of ΔF and representing the effect being part of the throughput of the process.

A way of looking at the difference between ΔF and ΔE, is by looking at a high-voltage power cable, outside in the fields, carried high on pylons. The cable carries ΔF but it is not noticeable, birds even can sit on the cable without a problem. But once the cable is connected with the earth through a conductor, you for example, you will notice the difference. The ΔF starts interacting and throughput of ΔE flows through your body, having an unpleasant impact.

E is the product of a process. E is the quantified effect of the cause-and-effect. E, quantified and aggregated, is the yield of Δ’s of forces, of + and -, of attraction and repulsion. E is describing an amount of transformation; a reshuffle of repetitive structures. During the course of The Fundamental Process, the amount of repetition, making up the structures, does not change, only the configuration changes, through transformation. One can compare this continuous process of transformation with the work of a potter working a hump of clay; the clay changes its form during the process but the amount of clay stays the same. This describes the law of conservation of E, which describes in essence the conservation of F.

When we are using the term “energy” in daily life, we refer to a portion of transformation. A litre of petrol, for example, has a portion of energy, measurable when being transformed into movement for example. The movement can be the movement of us by car for instance. While driving the car we run out of petrol but the energy is not lost, it has been transformed into other means. Therefor the litre of petrol, seen as portion of energy, is actually a ΔE; a change, a certain amount of the effect being part of process throughput. E is always in the context of a Δ. E represents the capacity of performing The Fundamental Process, the capacity of transformation of m, m as Wikipedia’s definition speaks about “a body”. In this essay, we will see that “E represents the capacity of transformation of m”, means that E represents the capacity of transformation of F, or more accurately, of changing the configuration of repetitive structures, constructed with F.

  • M

Wikipedia: Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (rate of change of velocity with respect to time) when a net force is applied.[1] An object’s mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies. The SI base unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).” “Mass is not a substance but rather a quantitative property of matter.”

In this essay the symbol M is used to address the term “mass”. In this essay the distinction  between “matter” and “mass” is not present as such. The distinction between mass and matter is, that matter refers to “chunks” of mass, while mass refers to M in general. Both are considered a repetitive process making up a structure of ΔF. Objects of M are a complex or conglomerate of structures of ΔF. The object is an aggregation of processes of ΔF, forming a structure in which these processes are confined, by having a redirected rotational speed of c. M is a process in which the process of c, having the shape of a sequentially propagated helix, is being redirected into a rotational structure of repetition. The process of M holds a combination of 2 basic processes; The Elementary Process and The Selective Process, together resulting in The Fundamental Process. These processes combined form structures of repetition, being M.

In order to illustrate what M is, we can think of some examples of how we experience M. When we knock on a door, the door is a distinct process of aggregated ΔF, forming a complex conglomerate, and so are we. When we knock on the door, we will see that we cannot penetrate the door. This is because we experience a high amount of repulsion from the door, on the level of nanoscale, on the surfaces touching each other. The forces which make up the door are too strong for us to penetrate. The surface of an object of M, is formed by the edges of the structure of ΔF. What we see and feel as the surface of the door, is ΔF on a local atomic scale being repulsive to us and to light, on the local scale of the surface. We can come near but we cannot penetrate. Another example; when we go swimming in the pool, the water is a distinct process of complex aggregated ΔF and so are we. We can feel the water but unlike with the door, we can dive into the water without getting hurt. The water does not penetrate us because our skin, being a complex of aggregated ΔF, has enough forces of repulsion at its surface to keep the water out. The repetitional complex structure of aggregated ΔF which forms water, does not have strong enough forces of repulsion to keep us out of the water. Or actually it has, but it just gives way at the molecular level, as the forces that make up the structure of water on a molecular level are not as strong. This changes when water turns into ice, or when you try to dive into the pool flat on your belly, ouch. Water in the pool is like the ball pool in the children’s playground, it is just that the balls are very tiny, as they are molecules.         

M is like a bubble; a structure of repetition, being something out of nothing, nothing more than ΔF, a bubble able to burst, as in an atomic explosion, leaving nothing but scattered ΔF. M is a process. M is the result of interaction between forces, be it in a local structural repetitive manner, having c involved. M is a rotating diversion of c (as in The Elementary Process), forming a structure of repetition. M is part of the process of continuous transformation of structures of ΔF, being the ongoing interaction of ΔF, named The Fundamental Process, in which M represents the amount of rotating repetition. The driving force behind M, could be the gravitational force, being responsible for a centered rotation of diverted c in the repetitive structure.

  • C

Wikipedia: “The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its exact value is defined as 299792458 metres per second (approximately 300000 km/s).”  “Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is also the speed at which all massless particles and field perturbations travel in vacuum, including electromagnetic radiation (of which light is a small range in the frequency spectrum) and gravitational waves. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer.”

In addition to the definition of c in Wikipedia, in this essay the symbol c is used to address the term “speed of light” not so much as a constant m/s, but rather as a constant of a process, The Elementary Process in fact, having the property c = frequency times wavelength, meaning that the process parameters are not constant but the result of the combined parameters, is. In other words; c is a constant but the 2 ingredients that make up c, are variables in such a way that they are each other’s counterparts and combined they result in a constant. The process of which c represents the propagation speed, consists of a multitude of speeds. The propagation of the process in the direction of c, is a constant c. The other speeds are rotational, as the result of forces in a right-angle direction to c, thus resulting in a helix shape for the process throughput. In this process the speed of photons is constant. A photon is the equivalent of one helix cycle of the process. The throughput in terms of photons, is not constant. This is because the size/density/wavelength of photons is not constant, while c is. The size of a photon’s wavelength depends on the frequency in the process. The speed of light in this context is the speed of photons being in a sequential array. A photon can be seen as an instance of the elementary ΔF. A photon normally exists within an array of radiation. The array is an instance of the elementary form of repetition. C can be seen as the default propagation speed of the process of elementary repetition. In an analogy, c is like the speed of a conveyor belt; the speed of the belt is constant but the throughput of the product (photons) which is being carried by the constant speed of the conveyor belt, may vary, depending on the frequency/capacity of the production process that feeds the conveyer belt with the product to carry. Another analogy is an Archimedes screw; however, in the case of c, the Archimedes screw is flexible instead if rigid. In effect the screw stretches (increased wavelength) when it rotates slower and when it rotates faster, it shrinks (diminished wavelength), thus keeping the throughput in the direction of c, constant. The analogy fails however, because an Archimedes screw is rotating while being stationary, it has no propagation, while an array of radiation has a propagation of speed c. An Archimedes screw cuts through a medium, like water and thus creates a yield, consisting of the medium. The yield of the process of c is in photons, not interacting with a medium. In a process with c, the yield is higher with higher frequency, being a higher yield of speed in other directions than c, expressed in a shorter wavelength. The yield in the direction of c, being a moving point in the wavelike path of the helix, is constant. The yield of photons, seen as particles being a complete cycle of an array of points, is not constant but varies with the amount of speed, forming the helix, going in other directions than c. Radiation in a helix form, can be seen as a process of Rotating repetition and Copying repetition or propagation. Rotating repetition is the continuous process of point-like rotation in which one cycle is being repeated. Copying repetition is the propagation of the Rotating repetition, in one direction. The 2 types of repetition combined results in an array in helix shape, existing of copies of the repeating cycles. The difference between “Copying repetition” and “Rotating repetition” is that Rotating repetition is an array of events, one “overwriting” the previous, while Copying repetition is an array of patterns, leaving the previous event as it is. It may be that the two types of repetition always go together and cannot exist independent of each other. The helix process can be described as c.fr in which fr is the rotational speed. C is a constant and fr is a variable.

The process of c is a propagated rotational repetition pursuing a straight line direction, resulting in a helix shape which is propagated with the speed c. C is the constant propagation speed and when the frequency of rotational repetition increases, a single point of the process will increase its speed in other directions than c’s direction, resulting in higher frequency with smaller wavelength.

  • Speed.

Wikipedia: “the speed (commonly referred to as v) of an object is the magnitude of the rate of change of its position with time or the magnitude of the change of its position per unit of time.”

In this essay Speed or velocity, is seen as a measure of throughput of a process of repetition and copying. Elementary repetition can be sequential and/or rotational. The distinction can be seen as two types of repetition; Copying Repetition and Rotating Repetition. See for more detail of the description of repetition, the definition of c, earlier in this essay. In this essay the term “repetition” is often used to refer to either of them. This elementary repetition is based on an elementary cause-and-effect sequence having an elementary propagation of c; The Elementary Process. On the elementary level of The Elementary Process, there is no other speed than c. The speed that we know in our daily life is the speed of The Fundamental Process, meaning the speed of the process of interaction of ΔF. Within this Fundamental Process acts The Elementary Process having a process speed of c. Acting within the context of The Fundamental Process, The Elementary Process is localized by the doing of The Selective Process. All things we know having some speed, are structures of repetition, being instances of The Fundamental Process. The speed of these structures is a measure for the propagation of the structures. The propagation is a result of the process of interaction of ΔF and speed can be seen as a measure of the intensity of the process of interaction of ΔF. The speed of an object for example, is a measure of specific interaction of ΔF, which is responsible for the Copying Repetition of the object. The object is a structure of local repetition, which structure is being rebuild continuously by a process of sequential copying, being a specific form of interaction of ΔF. The speed of the object is a measure for the intensity of the propagating process.  

In case a process does not have any interaction with other processes, the process and its speed will be constant. Speed does not stop or slow-down by itself. Speed occurs as property of the cause and effect of ΔF. In case of a force F as a result of interacting ΔF, being persistent or repetitive, the repetition frequency of the sequence of cause and effect is multiplied into acceleration. Speed cannot exceed c as the interaction which is causing speed is itself depending on The Elementary Process having speed c.

The speed of objects of M is the result of a complex of structures of ΔF. The object is an aggregation of confined processes of ΔF, having a redirected rotational speed of c. This rotational redirection causes the object to have a propagational speed of net zero in relation to the original sequential, single directional, propagation speed of c, unless external ΔF plays a role. This makes an object of M a locale. The speed of the object can be altered by external ΔF, in which case the complete system of structured aggregated rotational processes of repetition and ΔF, being confined in the object, needs to be rebuilt into a new configuration, a configuration having movement. This rebuilding is the reason for the resistance of M to acceleration. Once the object has been adjusted into the new configuration of ΔF, with the object having a new speed, a new status quo is established, process-wise. Only interaction with other processes of ΔF, can change the status quo. Every change in acceleration means an alteration in the balanced complex of processes that M is. Matter being in a state of constant speed or in “rest”, is a process being in a constant state. Nothing is needed to keep it going as it is; without interaction with other processes, a process will continue forever. In order to get the process of the repetitive structure in another state of movement, ΔE is needed in order to enable the reshuffling of the structure.

 E=mc2

With the above basics and definitions set, we can try to apply these in order to clarify some well-known facts of physics. This essay is restricted to attempt to clarify the well-known equation E=mc2, or in other words; m= E/c2. It also touches on the subject of Planck’s constant.

Key element for understanding the elementary physics around us, is to realize that everything is part of a continuous process of repetition, which process is repeating elementary Δ, referred to, in this essay, as the elementary ΔF. The basic quantity in this essay is a deemed elementary ΔF. Everything we observe in our universe is repetition of ΔF and structures of repetition of ΔF.

In order to have some understanding of the equation E=mc2, it is important to understand the meaning of c, as well as the meaning of m and E. The basics on these 3 entities are already set earlier in this essay, now let’s try and put them together in their context of E=mc2.  In the definition of c, used by this essay, c is part of a helix-shaped process. The helix process can be described as fr⋅c in which fr is the rotational speed. The helix is based on a constant value of propagational speed, c. If such a helix, would be accelerating as a result of a constant F in the same direction, it can be described as fr⋅c2. We see however that the propagation of light is constant and does not accelerate. That is when light is traveling in one direction. The acceleration fr⋅c2 can also describe a situation in which a constant F, acts upon the process from another direction. In which case, instead of changing the speed in the current direction of the process, F changes the direction of the process. If this happens in a continuous way, this results in a rotating movement, its characteristics depending on the characteristics of the F which is causing its process. A situation like this, results in the original helix-shaped process being redirected in a rotating manner, creating spatial structures. These structures are responsible for what we see as m. M is an assembly of processes, of redirected c, thus forming a locale. The driving force of this type of redirection of c, may be what we call gravity.

According to internet sources, the idea of E=mc2 is derived from the thought that momentum is always conserved (the same as energy is), this thought combined with the thought of a massless photon transferring a momentum to an object having mass. The key ingredient to E=mc2 is the idea that a photon is massless and yet has momentum. This means that momentum is not only transferred by masses and that momentum is actually defined purely by E (ΔE). Remarkable is that the equations, originally describing a kinetic energy system, having momentum (E=mv2), turn out to be valid generically, applicable to any system of mass, even when being at “rest”. This can be explained by seeing the system of mass, being at “rest”, as a system of kinetic energy. Inside mass, being at “rest”, things are moving, moving like crazy; like c. Mass can be seen as a local structure of aggregated photon-like ΔF, a structure full of momentum. A photon actually is one of those things moving like crazy, or more accurately stated; transmitting like crazy or being transmitted like crazy, transmitting one ΔF.

E=mc2 seems to be originated more as a mathematical quantification rather than a conceptual equation. As stated before, the conceptual idea of the equation is based on the law of conservation of momentum, rather than on the idea of energy and mass being equivalent. The equation is very helpful though for calculating quantities, in this relation of energy and mass being equivalent. In fact, the equation seems primarily relevant at the level of quantities or SI units. The equation does not show the shared conceptual element on both sides of the equation, which element makes the two sides equivalent. The conceptual element that makes the equivalence is the fact that all is a process, and in fact, all is One Process. This means that what we see as distinct features of physics (like E and M), are actually distinct forms of the same process. The challenge in explaining the equation E=mc2, is to make the conceptual translation. This means making the conversion from the units of physics, to the process that they represent.

E=mc2 is the equivalent of M=E/c2. Since c is a constant, it means that a kilogram of M contains a fixed amount of E, independent of the type of M which is involved. Often the equation is referred to as mass being the equivalent of Energy. The famous equation is E=mc2 but E is not just mc2; there is also E involved in situations without m. The equation m=E/c2, therefor seems more suitable for clarification, as M is indeed just E/c2. In this context, E is a quantity of the effect being part of the throughput of a process and c to a certain extent as well, be it fixed and one dimensional. This means that M is a bunch of throughput of ΔF. When we look at an object of M, we see E/c2, meaning we see a quantity of the effect being part of the throughput of a process. In the case of M, this throughput is contained within a structure of rotational processes. The structure contains an aggregated effect being part of the throughput of the involved process, the effect quantified by E/c2. In the equation, E is an aggregated net quantity of effect being part of throughput of a set of processes. c2 is a quantity of throughput consisting of c times c. C is the fundamental elementary propagation of throughput for all processes, the throughput consisting of the elementary ΔF.

In order to make the equation M=E complete, as a quantification that is, c2 acts as a factor of conversion. c2 represents a rotational throughput, consisting of c (the basic form of sequential throughput, being single directional, going in a straight line), multiplied by c, as representing the continuous redirection of the first c, resulting in rotation, comparable with acceleration of speed. The factor c2 needs to be applied to E, in order to calculate the amount of E which is contained in M. This idea of confined E in M, can be compared with a structure like DNA, or with our brain, both holding spiraling structures, contained within spatial boundaries, representing a long array if it was unwound into a straight line. In the end, as a concept, m is E. Mass is energy v.v., as c2 is just a constant, not adding much to the equation other than quantification. Or actually it does add something to the equation, namely acceleration in the form of rotation. This means that M is E, quantified by c2, but E is not necessarily M, as E can exist in situations without c2, in radiation. According to physics science, in radiation E=h⋅ν. As we regard radiation not to be a wave but a helix, in radiation, E is c, times the movement in other directions not being c. E does not rely on c2, while M does. E relies on c, c representing the elementary/fundamental process of ΔF.

The equation E=mc2 compares massless (E) with mass. E=mc2 quantifies, by doing an implicit conversion. E is being quantified, as an equivalent of the quantity of M. The constant that is used to make the conversion from one quantity (kg.) to another (kg⋅(m/s)2), is c2. E=mc2 means E=M in a ratio of c2. However, E does not always involve M. E does always involve c, either with or without M. The common element that M and E consist of, is F. M can be translated into F, in which case it becomes convertible with E. The conceptual conversion can be written as: (s means displacement)

E(in the context of M)  = F⋅s  = F⋅interaction-in-a-rotating-balanced-structure-of-repetition  = mc2 

In E=mc2, c2 is the elementary propagation speed of the process of interaction of elementary ΔF within the context of M, and m is the involved quantity of instances of this process.

When looking at E=mc2, instead of saying E=m and then add the c2 to the concept, as described above, one can also say E=c2, and then add m to the concept. E=c2 as a quantifying equation, is valid in the case m=1kg. Both E and c2 are part of throughput of The Elementary Process, that is when M is involved. E is an aggregated amount of effect or interaction, and c2 is the measure of throughput. Looking at c in the case of M, the elementary propagation c is in a constant acceleration, meaning multiplied by itself through rotational redirection, resulting in c2. Propagation being multiplied by itself means there is a constant force, a constant driver which drives the process anew on the result of the former process step. This typically happens within M, as M is a confined set of ΔF, interacting in a structure of repetition. The E contained in M, is the constant throughput c2 multiplied with the amount of repetition of c2, which is quantified by m. The outcome E, is the total amount of effect of the throughput being confined in the repetitional structure of M. E represents a certain array of the sequential process of c, the array being wrapped in a confined rotational structure of repetition. The equation E=c2 needs m in order to make it a valid quantifying equation for other situations than just m=1. Conceptually it means that E is c2; not that E is a constant like c2 is, at least not in the context of M, but in the sense that E is like c2, part of process throughput; a measure of interaction or rather  the result of it. The variable quantity E, equals the constant c2 in case m=1. This is a matter of definition of units. When m is not 1, the amount of E in m, does not equal c2. The variable E is variable because of the variable m and v.v. In order to quantify the variable E, we need to know the amount of the variable m and multiply this m by a factor of c2. In other words; in order to quantify the effect of the throughput of the involved process in scope, we need to quantify the amount of process (m) and multiply it with the conversion factor (c2), representing the constant throughput of the process.

In E=mc2, c2 can be seen as the throughput of the involved process, m as the amount of the involved process and E as the total result. We can make an analogy with a river, transporting water. In this analogy, E is the amount of water flowing through the river in a certain fixed amount of time, the amount of time representing a certain sample-part of the process, this sample of the process being the equivalent of the rotating repetition within m. The analogy is flawed because the river is a sequential process and what we are talking about with E=mc2 is a rotating process. In order to correct the analogy, the sample needs to repeat itself. To fix this we could see the river as flowing in a loop, as in an ongoing roller-coaster making its rounds. Now the fixed amount of time is repeating itself as in a broken record or as the snake biting its tail; there is no beginning and no end. In this analogy, the process of flowing water has a constant throughput, meaning the water always flows with the same speed; the first c in the equation. The second c is obtained with the looping. The variable which determines the amount of involved water(E) is the equivalent of m; a possible variation in width and depth of the river. Thus, m is the equivalent of the aggregated number of repeating samples of the river. The samples are constant in their value of E, as the speed of the water is constant and the repeating rotating timeframes, the loopings, are constant.

Conceptually, in E=mc2, E and m are variables of physics but c is not, c is a constant. Conceptually, E could be a constant because c is a constant, except for the situation in which M is involved, because M introduces the variable repetition of E in structures of ΔF. In this line of thinking, conceptually, without M in scope, for example in case of radiation, one might say E=c. However, the energy of a photon is described by E=h⋅ν=h⋅c/λ. This means that the E of light is not represented by the propagation c, but rather by the helix of the process. The energy of a photon is not constant, it depends on its frequency or wavelength. In other words; the energy of a photon is in the combination of propagation c and the rotational speed, together making the shape of a helix. The photon (one λ) has a fixed propagational speed of c, regardless of the E that the photon has. An array of photons can differ in throughput depending on the λ of the photon while the propagational speed is a constant c. That is why an increase of frequency goes with a decrease of λ. This results in a constant throughput of propagation, having variable intensity or energy or number of photons. Higher intensity or energy or number of photons, means more photons passing through, while being smaller. A single point of the helix in radiation is moving with a constant speed c and so does a single photon but a photon consists of 2 processes; one propagational in one direction c and one rotational in all other right-angle directions. The second process makes the λ of a photon a variable. That is why a constant propagation of c does not result in a constant throughput of photons. There is a variable involved in radiation, making the constant c a variable E. This variable is h/λ, making the equation E=c⋅h/λ. h represents the elementary ΔF. The E (total effect of the throughput of ΔF) of radiation is ΔF times c, made variable by λ, λ being the representative of the rotational frequency in other directions than c, making up the helix.

The helix of radiation consists of 2 processes combined, one process having a constant speed and one process having a variable speed. M also consists of 2 processes, one of those 2 processes in M being the helix. In the equation E=mc2, the 2 processes of M are the equivalent of c2, except for the 2nd process shaping the helix, the one which is variable in speed having variable h/λ. In the equation E=mc2, the variable h/λ is part of m.

E=mc2, M=E/c2 and C=(E/m)/c. How to interpret this C?

In the equation C=(E/m)/c, c is a constant, representing propagation of throughput but the 2 c’s in the equation are conceptually not the same. Their value is the same in terms of scalar speed, but differs in terms of vector velocity. One c is directed in one single direction and the other c is continuously changing its direction. We can make the distinction using the references c and c’. Then we rewrite the equation as c’=(E/m)/c. The interpretation can then be as follows; In the context of M, c’ is the propagation of effect of throughput (E) in all directions, of the involved process, per amount (m) of the process, per c amount of propagation of the process in the one direction of c.

In theory, a continuous ΔF working on a body can have the body accelerate infinitely, if it wasn’t for the fact that the body exists of processes of ΔF having speed c. The body cannot exceed the speed c as it requires a rebuilding process which is faster than the process to rebuild. Such a process will just run out of material. Everything is a process and part of The Elementary Process. As far as we know, there is no process faster than c and for a body of M to accelerate towards a speed c, it is required to increase the frequency of the rebuilding of the object, since moving a body means rebuilding the process that the body actually is. In theory it is possible for an object to reach a speed c. It requires a total amount of effect of throughput of ΔF (E), being as much as the involved E that the object represents(E=mc2), times c.  In a way, bringing an object to a speed c, is practising reversed engineering. The object represents c being engineered into a repetitive structure of rotation, in which c is redirected rotation-wise into a process being a locale. To give this object a speed of c is in a way undoing the original engineering, except that it is still a body. A proper practice of reversed engineering in this context, would be to “unwind” the body of redirected c and make it back into a one-dimensional process. This is what happens with a nuclear explosion.

The Fundamental Process, The Elementary Process and The Selective Process.

Everything we detect is processes of repetition, which are instances of The Fundamental Process. The Fundamental Process is formed by the combination of The Elementary Process and The Selective Process. The Fundamental Process can be seen as the continuous reconfiguration of structures of aggregated ΔF or in other words as the continuous transformation of energy or in other words as the continuous interaction of ΔF. The driver of the continuity is The Elementary Process which can be seen as a process of propagation of ΔF. The Selective Process takes the ΔF from The Elementary Process as input and shapes the elementary ΔF into a variety of structures, according to fixed preferences, which we call the laws of physics.

Looking at the theory of The Fundamental Process and the presented explanation of E=mc2, one can say that although light comes from the sun and the stars, light does not depend on the sun and the stars, it is the other way around; the sun and the stars, like all mass, are made out of light and other types of ΔF. In other words; first there was light and then there was the sun.

c2 is c⋅c, which is a constant, a constant process, a constant of change or a certain capacity of change. C represents a constant amount of ΔF as throughput of a process. Within mass, one c of c⋅c, stands for the throughput of the process which takes place in the locality of mass. The other c stands for the throughput of the process which enforces that the process, having the first c, is contained within the borders of the locality. Without the second c, the process with the other c would not be forming local mass. c2 can be written as (m/s)(m/s) or m2/ s2, having a constant value. Thus the containment of c within mass exists of 2 components, depicted by m (meter) and s (second). One component represents acceleration, being speed per second; m/s/s. In this case; c/s. Yet the acceleration does not result in a higher speed; c stays constant. The acceleration happens otherwise. Acceleration occurs under the influence of a force. Within mass, c as a “straight line” or beam, is by force, continuously changing direction which results in a rotation. The rotation is the result of acceleration and the fact that the acceleration is not in a straight line, is represented by the m (meter)-component to indicate the continuous redirection of the original c direction. Thus, every second, c is being constant (c/s), yet in a different direction (c/m/s). While the force which is responsible for the acceleration can be regarded as a similar vector as the original source of c, but continuously pointing to a direction 90 degrees from the original direction of c, the original c is confined into a localized circular motion. With c2 we have the process of c contained in a locality. In order to have the process local, ΔF is involved. On top of the ΔF responsible for c, an additional ΔF is responsible for the rotating process. The process of c is a constant and c2 stands for the exponential form of this process as it is shaped in a 3-dimensional form, like a sphere, forming mass. Mass (kg) is a measure of the ΔF that is responsible for the rotating processes of c2 and represents the cumulative amount of it. Matter consists of 3 components/elements; 2 are the ΔF’s responsible for the rotational processing of c2 and the 3rd is the cumulative component which we measure in units of E, as mass is not a constant as c is. The gravitational constant G, possibly represents one of the 2 ΔF’s, the one that is the rotational component of ΔF in mass. In the end all matter is ΔF in progress, the progress of the Fundamental Process.

E is a measure for interaction between ΔF. In E=mc2, c represents The Elementary Process; a 1-dimensional sequential non-interactive binary process. c2 represents the result of The Selective Process; an interactive process having fixed parameter values which localizes throughput of The Elementary Process, having c as input, introducing a 2nd dimension and mc2 represents the amount of throughput of this Fundamental Process; a 3-dimensional structure of aggregated interacting ΔF. E is a measure which represents a portion of throughput of The Fundamental Process.

All we observe which seems to be static, is not. What seems to be static is built of processes of localized repetition. Molecules and atoms are processes of localized repetition, built on processes with repetitive structures having interactive dynamics and a constant throughput, the equivalent of c (as in E=mc2). Processes are sequences of cause and effect, or chains of action and reaction, or interaction, all following a pattern which complies with the laws of physics. Detectable processes are elementary chains or patterns of repetition, which patterns or chains are under the continuous influence of interaction with other processes, as a result of The Fundamental Process. Processes evolve, as a consequence of The Fundamental Process’s character of continuous change, resulting in altered patterns of repetition. That is why, under different circumstances of interaction, processes discontinue or continue in another form, but all in compliance with the law of conservation of energy. It is also why we age.

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