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E=mc2

Introduction

This essay is an attempt to clarify the well-known equation E=mc2. Before getting there, some ideas on basic physics are introduced and a few definitions are set. In this essay the emphasis lies on a conceptual description of physics rather than a quantified description of physics. The mathematical approach of physics is mostly avoided.

What follows in this essay is thoughts, not science but thoughts. The statements made in this essay, are not pretending to be true or proven to be so, they are just thoughts. Moreover, these thoughts are snapshots of an ever-ongoing process of evolving insights and therefor subject to change. These thoughts are believed to possibly be somewhat provocative at times or just controversial perhaps. They are not meant to be so. The thoughts are meant to be inspirational. They are meant to shed light on matters in a way which makes people look at these matters in a different manner. Perhaps the essay can be input to other thoughts and to other people, thus yielding new insights. New insights, having some purpose, great or small, or perhaps with no purpose at all. In any case, knowing that this essay is a bit outside the box and not necessarily very accurate, I hope this essay is received with some mildness and a kind of appreciation by the reader and that it can be inspirational.

Meaning of symbols used:

ν, frequency

Δ, delta (deviation)

λ, wavelength

E, energy

c, speed of light

m or M, mass

F, force

h, Planck’s constant

4 Basics:

In order to increase the chances of the reader making sense of the thoughts and ideas in this essay, we will get straight to the point. Actually, some points, that is, 4 to be precise. They may not be very self-explanatory at first sight but hopefully, after reading the essay, they become clearer.

1) Everything is a process and as such, part of the Process.

The Process is the fundamental process of interaction of ΔF. Everything is continuously being a cause and an effect. There is no such thing as stand-still or rest. What we see as stand-still is

  • Relative movement in relation to surroundings. Objects seen as in rest have the same speed as the frame of reference.
  • A balanced structure of rotational movement. Object, whether we see them as in motion or not, are fundamentally made of movement. The structures in the object are made of high-speed movement or frequency, comparable, in a way, with a still image on a tv screen which actually consist of pixels or lines, changing in a high frequency. 

2) Everything we detect is repetition.

Everything we detect is processes of repetition. This elementary repetition can be sequential and/or rotational. The distinction can be described as Rotating Repetition and Copying Repetition, in this essay the term “repetition” can refer to either of them. This repetition is based on an elementary cause-and-effect sequence having an elementary propagation of c.

3) Everything is Δ.

There is no such thing as particles or mass, other than ΔF or a structure of ΔF. ΔF stands for fundamental deviation or force. ΔF is the driver of all processes. ΔF can be seen as an amount of either repulsion or attraction. The strange thing is, that what is being attracted or repelled, is ΔF as well, be it as a structure of confined ΔF. While everything is repetition, repetition is a process; the repetition of Δ. Possibly of just one Δ, creating a binary universe. Processes are using combinations of sequences of ΔF, forming arrays, which arrays are repetitive yet possibly distinctive from other repetitive combinations, thus creating diversity out of binary uniformity.   

4) Everything is connected.

There is no such thing as a stand-alone process or a closed system, except perhaps the overall Process itself. Everything around us is part of the overall Process and acts within that context. This is why there is no such thing as a perpetuum mobile. (Except perhaps the overall Process itself.) 

All there is, is repetition, being utilized to form diverse structures in a process of ongoing transformation practising the laws of physics, thus following the fixed preferences of laws of physics and the law of conservation of E. This Process builds complex structures of diversity, structures which maintain and develop in the process of fixed preferences. Forces (F), attraction (F), repulsion (F), energy (E), mass (M), the speed of light (c), all this is part of one and the same thing; repetition. And only because of repetition, these things are detectable to us and “meaningful” to us. Us being part of repetition ourselves of course, and enabled to detect the world around us, by memory.

6 definitions of terms

In order to further increase the ability of the reader to follow the thoughts and ideas in this essay, it is deemed necessary to set a few definitions or explanations of terms, as they are used in this essay. These terms are mostly well-known terms, but the definition or explanation of the terms, as they are used in this essay, may be a bit out of the ordinary.

  • The Process.

Wikipedia: “A process is a series or set of activities that interact to produce a result; it may occur once-only or be recurrent or periodic.”

This essay states that everything we know is a process and that everything we know is part of an elementary process referred to as the Process. Everything we know is repetition; in our world, there is no such thing as new, except new combinations of repetition. A possible way of explaining the universe is to see the universe being ruled by 2 processes or 2 forms of one Process. Number 1 is duplicating ΔF, creating repetition, a process having speed c, expanding the universe. The result of this process can be seen as new, as in newly formed repetition, but “the new” is not present as such in our daily lives. The reason this expanding new universe is not present in our daily lives, is that we exist of M, being structures of rotational redirected c, part of the Process number 2 which uses instances of the Process number 1. What happens in Process number 1 is moving away from us with speed c. What is present in our daily lives, is part of Process number 2. Process number 2 has the result of Process number 1 as input. Process number 2 is a process of continuous transformation of the result of Process number 1. This process involves the redirection of c from a single-directional propagating process into a multi-directional propagating process. Our daily lives are happening in the context of process 2, in the context of a 3-dimensional world. Within this Process number 2, the interaction of ΔF is being transformed continuously into a new configuration and at the same time, ΔF is being conserved to the same amount.

  • F (ΔF)

Wikipedia: “In physics, a force is any influence that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. It is measured in the SI unit of newton (N).” “A newton is defined as the force which gives a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 metre per second, per second, 1 kgm/s2.”  “Force is represented by the symbol F (formerly P).”

In this essay the symbol F is used to address the term “force”. In this essay F is used to refer to the conceptual term of force, as well as to refer to the involved quantity of force. F represents a delta(Δ), a deviation. This deviation results in attraction or repulsion. In addition to and in accordance with, the definition of Wikipedia, we can say that F is defined as a measurement for mass being accelerated, or a measurement for acceleration of mass. F is a quantification of a cause, measured by its effect. F is not seen as a process but as a driver of a process, at a given time, as in a snapshot. It is the result of F over time, that makes it possible to quantify F, retrospectively. F is the driver of the process of acceleration. F is a driver of a process. When F is persistent, that is the result of a process which process itself is driven by ΔF. This is part of the mysterious phenomenon of F. In the Wikipedia definition, F depends on a relation with acceleration of mass. The Process number 1 (see above), only has one speed, no acceleration. F, as in any type of force, is not applicable to the Process number 1, except for the single elementary ΔF. F only applies on mass, which is a form of the Process number 2 (see above). More accurately put; F only applies on F. F is what is needed to perform the Process number 2. What is needed (F) is attraction or repulsion or a balance of the two. All this, only works on repetitive structures. A force, other than the elementary ΔF, being attraction or repulsion, exists in the context of mass. There seems to be no relevancy in a force without any mass involved to be attracted or repelled. But mass itself is a structure of forces. All we know is forces; our world is a binary world of attraction and repulsion, having patterns of repetition. It is the repetition that makes up our detectable world. A force is only a force in interaction with other forces, in combination with a repetitive pattern. A force is often something which stands out from the average; a concentration or a dilution, in which case a balance of forces on that level, is absent. The result of Process number 2 can be seen as aggregations of the result of Process number 1; aggregations of repetition. F is an aggregated Δ, a Δ like + or -, resulting in concentration or dilution, in attraction or repulsion, depending on preferences. A force acts according fixed preferences, which only seems relevant in the context of something to be attracted or repelled. In general, preferences are persistent. These preferences are seen in what we call the laws of physics. Forces are not existing as stand-alone entities; they only exist as interaction and they only exist when repetition is involved. The strange thing is, that F interacts with F. Wikipedia’s definition of F says that F interacts with m but, as explained later-on in this essay, m is actually F. Forces are the result of repetition, and/or the other way around. A force acts like a local state of preference. A force results in attraction or repulsion of m, in a certain direction. In any way, a force is a Δ and responsible for transfer of ΔE, either with or without movement of objects of m. F is the key ingredient of the Process number 2, in distinction to the Process number 1. F is the agent of all our laws of physics. Yet F is mysterious. What is its source? Knowing what F really is, is probably coming close to knowing the essence of existence.

  • E (ΔE)

Wikipedia: “In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to a body or physical system to perform work on the body, or to heat it. The unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) of energy is the joule, which is the energy transferred to an object by the work of moving it a distance of one metre against a force of one newton.”  

In this essay the symbol E is used to address the term “energy”. In this essay E is being used to refer to the conceptual term of energy, as well as to refer to the involved quantity of energy. Just like F, E represents a delta(Δ), a deviation. The deviation results in a process driven by attraction or repulsion. The throughput of this process is called E. As E is a throughput, E is the result of a Δ, the same Δ as the one responsible for F. While F represents the amount of Δ, being the driver of the process of interaction, E represents the total result of this process. In addition to the definition of E in Wikipedia, combined with the definition of F in Wikipedia, we can say that 1 joule of energy is equivalent to 1 kilogram accelerating with 1 meter per second, per second, resulting in 1 metre of distance. This makes a Joule the equivalent of 1 kg⋅m/s2⋅m. The difference between E and F, is distance(displacement), as the effect being part of the throughput of a process. In other words; F is cause and E is aggregated effect. Although F is expressed as the effect it causes, E is the aggregated effect. E is an assembly of effect, a distinct part of the Process. The relation between E and F is E=F⋅s. (energy=force times displacement). Energy is the result of force; energy is the outcome of the process which forces are part of. Forces are part of repetition, of continuous patterns of change. Energy is a measure for the interaction between forces. E quantifies this interaction which quantity is the result of the process in which patterns of repetition are broken and re-formed into new patterns of repetition. In this essay, F is regarded as the input for all processes. All processes that are part of Process number 2 that is. These processes include “work”, being an example of transformation of repetitive structures through interaction of ΔF and representing the effect being part of the throughput of the process.

Another way of looking at the difference between ΔF and ΔE, is by looking at a high voltage power cable outside in the fields carried high on pylons. The cable carries ΔF but it is not noticeable, birds even can sit on the cable without a problem. But once the cable is connected with the earth through a conductor, you for example, you will notice the difference. The ΔF starts interacting and throughput of ΔE flows through your body, having some unpleasant impact.

E is the product of a process. E is the quantified effect of the cause-and-effect. E, quantified and aggregated, is the yield of Δ’s of forces, of + and -, of attraction and repulsion. E is describing an amount of transformation; a reshuffle of repetitive structures. During the course of the Process, the amount of repetition, making up the structures, does not change, only the configuration changes, through transformation. This transformation is the result of the Process number 2. One can compare this continuous process of transformation with the work of a potter working a hump of clay; the clay changes its form during the process but the amount of clay stays the same. This describes the law of conservation of E, which describes in essence the conservation of F. Conservation of E is based on E being nothing but more-of-the-same; repetition.

When we are using the term “energy” in daily life, we refer to a portion of transformation. A litre of petrol, for example, has a portion of energy, being transformed into movement, of us by car for instance. While driving the car we run out of petrol but the energy is not lost, it has been transformed into other means. Therefor the litre of petrol, seen as portion of energy, is actually a ΔE; a change, a certain amount of the effect being part of process throughput. E is always a Δ. E represents the ability of performing the Process number 2, of transformation of m, as Wikipedia’s definition speaks about “a body”. In this essay, we will see that “E represents the ability of transformation of m”, means that E represents the ability of transformation of F, or more accurately, of changing the configuration of repetitive structures of F.  

  • M

Wikipedia: Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (rate of change of velocity with respect to time) when a net force is applied.[1] An object’s mass also determines the strength of its gravitational attraction to other bodies. The SI base unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).” “Mass is not a substance but rather a quantitative property of matter.”

In this essay the symbol M is used to address the term “mass”. In this essay the distinction between “matter” and “mass” is not present as such. The distinction between mass and matter is, that matter refers to “chunks” of mass, while mass refers to M in general. Both are considered a repetitive process making up a structure of ΔF. Objects of M are a complex or conglomerate of structures of ΔF. The object is an aggregation of processes of ΔF, forming a structure in which these processes are confined, by having a redirected rotational speed of c. M is a process in which the process of c, having the shape of a sequentially propagated helix, is being redirected into a rotational structure of repetition. The process of M holds a combination of 2 processes, both processes having a throughput of c; one c being a one-dimensional sequence, comparable with radiation and one c being a rotational repetition of this one-dimensional sequence, transforming the original one-dimensional sequence into a rotational repetitive sequence. These 2 processes combined form structures being M.

In order to illustrate what M is, we can think of some examples of how we experience M. When we knock on a door, the door is a distinct process of aggregated ΔF, forming a complex conglomerate, and so are we. When we knock on the door, we will see that we cannot penetrate the door, which means there is not much interaction between the door and us. This is because we experience a high amount of repulsion from the door. The forces which make up the door are too strong for us to penetrate. The surface of an object of M, is formed by the edges of the structure of ΔF. What we see and feel as the surface of the door, is ΔF on a local atomic scale being repulsive to us and to light, on the local scale of the surface. We can come near but we cannot penetrate. Another example; when we go swimming in the pool, the water is a distinct process of complex aggregated ΔF and so are we. We can feel the water but unlike with the door, we can dive into the water without getting hurt. The water does not penetrate us because our skin, being a complex of aggregated ΔF, has enough forces of repulsion at its surface to keep the water out. The repetitional complex structure of aggregated ΔF which forms water, does not have strong enough forces of repulsion to keep us out of the water. Or actually it has, but it just gives way at the molecule level, as the forces that make up the structure of water on a molecule level are not as strong. This changes when water turns into ice, or when you try to dive into the pool flat on your belly, ouch. Water in the pool is like the ball pool in the children’s playground, it is just that the balls are very tiny, as they are molecules.         

M is like a bubble; a structure of repetition, being something out of nothing, nothing more than ΔF, a bubble able to burst, as in an atomic explosion, leaving nothing but scattered F. M is a process. M is the result of interaction between forces, being it in a structural repetitive manner, having c involved. M is a rotating diversion of c (as in the Process number 1), forming a structure of repetition. M is part of the process of continuous transformation of structures of ΔF, by the ongoing interaction of ΔF, being the Process number 2, in which M is the amount of rotating repetition. The driving force of M, responsible for the rotation of the rotating repetition of diverted c, could be the gravitational force.

The resistance to acceleration of M, is possibly due to the necessary reshuffle of the structure of ΔF, being a process, in order to accelerate. See the definition of “speed” for more on this subject.

  • C

Wikipedia: “The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted c, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its exact value is defined as 299792458 metres per second (approximately 300000 km/s).”  “Though this speed is most commonly associated with light, it is also the speed at which all massless particles and field perturbations travel in vacuum, including electromagnetic radiation (of which light is a small range in the frequency spectrum) and gravitational waves. Such particles and waves travel at c regardless of the motion of the source or the inertial reference frame of the observer.”

In addition to the definition of c in Wikipedia, in this essay the symbol c is used to address the term “speed of light” not so much as a constant m/s, but rather as a constant of a process, the Process number 1 in fact, having the property c = frequency times wavelength, meaning that the process parameters are not constant but the result of the combined parameters, is. In other words; c is a constant but the 2 ingredients that make up c, are variables in such a way that they are each other’s counterparts and combined they result in a constant. The process of which c represents the propagation speed, consists of a multitude of speeds. The propagation of the process in the direction of c, is a constant c. The other speeds are rotational, in a right-angle direction to c, thus resulting in a helix shape for the process throughput. In this process the speed of photons is constant. A photon is the equivalent of one cycle of the process. The throughput in terms of photons, is not constant. This is because the size/density/wavelength of photons is not constant, as c is. The size of a photon’s wavelength depends on the frequency in the process. The speed of light in this context is the speed of photons being in a sequential array. A photon is an instance of the elementary interaction between elementary ΔF. A photon normally exists within an array of radiation. The array is an instance of the elementary form of repetition. C can be seen as the default propagation speed of the process of repetition. C is like the speed of a conveyor belt; the speed of the belt is constant but the throughput of the product (photons) which is being carried by the constant speed of the conveyor belt, may vary depending on the frequency/capacity of the production process that feeds the conveyer belt with the product to carry. Another analogy is an Archimedes screw; however, the screw in the case of c is flexible; it extends when it rotates slower and when it rotates faster, it shrinks, thus keeping the throughput in the direction of c, constant. The analogy fails however, because an Archimedes screw is rotating while being stationary, it has no propagation, while an array of radiation has a propagation of speed c. An Archimedes screw cuts through a medium, like water and thus creates a yield, consisting of the medium. The yield of the process of c is in photons, not interacting with a medium. The yield is higher with higher frequency, being a higher yield of speed in other directions than c, expressed in a shorter wavelength. The yield in the direction of c, being a moving point in the wavelike path of the helix, is constant. The yield of photons, seen as particles being a complete cycle of an array of points, is not constant but varies with the amount of speed, forming the helix, going in other directions than c. Radiation in a helix form, can be seen as a process of Rotating repetition and Copying repetition or propagation. Rotating repetition is the continuous process of point-like rotation in which one cycle is being repeated. Copying repetition is the propagation of the Rotating repetition, in one direction, resulting in an array in helix shape, existing of copies of the repeating cycles. The difference between “Copying repetition” and “Rotating repetition” is that Rotating repetition is an array of events, one “overwriting” the previous, while Copying repetition is an array of patterns, leaving the previous event as it is. It may be that the two types of repetition always go together and cannot exist independent of each other. The helix process can be described as c.fr in which fr is the rotational speed. C is a constant and fr is a variable.

The process of c is a propagated rotational repetition, resulting in a helix shape which is propagated with the speed c. C is the constant propagation speed and when the frequency of repetition increases, a single point of the process will increase its speed in other directions than c’s direction.

  • Speed.

Wikipedia: “the speed (commonly referred to as v) of an object is the magnitude of the rate of change of its position with time or the magnitude of the change of its position per unit of time.”

In this essay Speed or velocity, is seen as a measure of throughput of a process of repetition and copying. Elementary repetition can be sequential and/or rotational. The distinction can be seen as Copying repetition and Rotating repetition. See for more detail of the description of repetition, the definition of c, earlier in this essay. In this essay the term “repetition” is often used to refer to either of them. This repetition is based on an elementary cause-and-effect sequence having an elementary propagation of c. Speed quantifies intensity of the repetitive copying process, comparable and in conjunction with frequency but being propagational. Repetition is responsible for movement. Speed is a measure of movement, movement being the result of a process of cause and effect. The elementary form of speed is the intensity of the elementary repetitive Process of ΔF. The propagation speed of this process is c. All movement is based on this elementary Process, be it with or without structures of M. In case a process does not have any interaction with other processes, the process and its speed will be constant. Speed does not stop or slow-down by itself. Speed occurs as property of the cause and effect of ΔF. In case ΔF is persistent or repetitive, the frequency of the sequence of cause and effect is multiplied into acceleration.

The speed of objects of M is the result of a complex of structures of ΔF. The object is an aggregation of confined processes of ΔF, having a redirected rotational speed of c. This rotational redirection causes the object to have a propagational speed of zero in relation to the original sequential, single directional, propagational speed of c, unless external ΔF plays a role. This makes an object of M a locale. The speed of the object can be altered by external ΔF, in which case the complete system of structured aggregated rotational processes of repetition and ΔF, being confined in the object, needs to be rebuilt into a new configuration, a configuration having movement. This rebuilding is the reason for the resistance of M to acceleration. Once the object has been adjusted into the new configuration of ΔF, with the object having a new speed, a new status quo is established, process-wise. Only interaction with other processes of ΔF, can change the status quo. Every change in acceleration means a change of the process that M is. Matter being in a state of constant speed or in “rest”, is a process being in a constant state. Nothing is needed to keep it going; without interaction with other processes, a process will continue forever. In order to have the process of the repetitive structure in another state of movement, ΔE is needed in order to alter the internal process which forms the M involved, to enable the reshuffling of the structure.

E=mc2

With the above basics and definitions set, we can try to apply these in order to clarify some well-known facts of physics. This essay is restricted to attempt to clarify the well-known equation E=mc2, or in other words; m= E/c2. It also touches on the subject of Planck’s constant.

Key element for understanding the elementary physics around us, is to realize that everything is part of a continuous process of repetition which process is repeating elementary Δ, referred to, in this essay, as the elementary ΔF. The basic quantity in this essay is a deemed elementary ΔF.

In order to have some understanding of the equation E=mc2, it is important to understand the meaning of c, as well as the meaning of m and E. The basics on these 3 entities are already set earlier in this essay, now let’s try and put them together in their context of E=mc2.  In the definition of c, used by this essay, c is part of a helix-shaped process. The helix process can be described as fr⋅c in which fr is the rotational speed. The helix is based on a constant value of propagational speed, c. If such a helix, would be accelerating as a result of a constant F in the same direction, it can be described as fr⋅c2. We see however that the propagation of light is constant and does not accelerate. That is when light is traveling in one direction. The acceleration f⋅c2 can also describe a situation in which a constant F, acts upon the process from another direction. In which case, instead of changing the speed in the current direction of the process, F changes the direction of the process. If this happens in a continuous way, this results in a rotating movement, its characteristics depending on the characteristics of the F which is causing its process. A situation like this, results in the original helix-shaped process being redirected in a rotating manner, creating spatial structures. These structures are responsible for what we see as m. M is an assembly of processes, of redirected c, thus forming a locale. The driving force of this type of redirection of c, may be what we call gravity.

According to internet sources, the idea of E=mc2 is derived from the thought that momentum is always conserved (the same as energy is) in combination with the thought of a massless photon transferring a momentum to an object having mass. The key ingredient to E=mc2 is the idea that a photon is massless and yet has momentum. This means that momentum is not only transferred by masses and that momentum is actually defined purely by E (ΔE). Remarkable is that the equations, originally describing a kinetic energy system, having momentum (E=mv2), turn out to be valid generically, applicable to any system of mass, being at “rest”. This can be explained by seeing the system of mass, being at “rest”, as a system of kinetic energy. Inside mass things are moving, moving like crazy; like c. Mass can be seen as a local structure of aggregated photon-like ΔF, a structure full of momentum. A photon actually is one of those things moving like crazy, or more accurately stated; transmitting like crazy or being transmitted like crazy, transmitting one ΔF.

E=mc2 seems to be originated more as a mathematical quantification rather than a conceptual equation. As stated before, the conceptual idea of the equation is based on the law of conservation of momentum, rather than on the idea of energy and mass being equivalent. The equation is very helpful though for calculating quantities in this relation of energy and mass being equivalent. In fact, the equation seems primarily relevant at the level of quantities or SI units. The equation does not show the shared conceptual element on both sides of the equation, which makes the two sides equivalent. The conceptual element that makes the equivalence is the fact that all is a process and in fact, all is One Process. This means that what we see as distinct features of physics (like E and M), are actually distinct forms of the same process. The challenge in explaining the equation E=mc2, is to make the conceptual translation. This means making the conversion from the units of physics, to the process that they represent.

E=mc2 is the equivalent of M=E/c2. Since c is a constant, it means that a kilogram of M contains a fixed amount of E, independent of the type of M which is involved. Often the equation is referred to as mass being the equivalent of Energy. The famous equation is E=mc2 but E is not just mc2; there is also E involved in situations without m. The equation m=E/c2, therefor seems more suitable for clarification, as M is indeed just E/c2. In this context, E is a quantity of the effect being part of the throughput of a process and c to a certain extent as well, be it fixed and one dimensional. This means that M is a bunch of throughput of ΔF. When we look at an object of M, we see E/c2, meaning we see a quantity of the effect being part of the throughput of a process. In the case of M, this throughput is contained within a structure of rotational processes. The structure contains an aggregated effect being part of the throughput of the involved process, the effect quantified by E/c2. In the equation, E is an aggregated net quantity of effect being part of throughput of a set of processes. c2 is a quantity of throughput consisting of c times c. C is the fundamental elementary propagation of throughput for all processes, the throughput consisting of the elementary ΔF.

In order to make the equation M=E complete, as a quantification that is, c2 acts as a factor of conversion. c2 represents a rotational throughput, consisting of c (the basic form of sequential throughput, being single directional, going in a straight line), multiplied by c, as representing the continuous redirection of the first c, resulting in rotation, comparable with acceleration of speed. The factor c2 needs to be applied to E, in order to calculate the amount of E which is contained in M. This idea of confined E in M, can be compared with a structure like DNA, or with our brain, both holding spiraling structures, contained within spatial boundaries, representing a long array if it was unwound into a straight line. In the end, as a concept, m is E. Mass is energy v.v., as c2 is just a constant, not adding much to the equation other than quantification. Or actually it does add something to the equation, namely acceleration in the form of rotation. This means that M is E, quantified by c2, but E is not necessarily M, as E can exist in situations without c2, in radiation. According to physics science, in radiation E=h⋅ν. As we regard radiation not to be a wave but a helix, in radiation, E is c, times the movement in other directions not being c. E does not rely on c2, while M does. E relies on c, c representing the elementary/fundamental process of ΔF.

The equation E=mc2 compares massless with mass. E=mc2 quantifies by doing an implicit conversion. E is being quantified, as an equivalent of the quantity of M. The constant that is used to make the conversion from one quantity (kg.) to another (kg⋅(m/s)2), is c2. E=mc2 means E=M in a ratio of c2. However, E does not always involve M. E does always involve c, either with or without M. The common element that M and E consist of, is F. M can be translated into F, in which case it becomes convertible with E. The conceptual conversion can be written as: (s means displacement)

E(in the context of M)  = F⋅s  = F-interacting-in-a-rotating-balanced-structure-of-repetition  = mc2 

In E=mc2, c2 is the elementary propagation speed of the process of interaction of elementary ΔF within the context of M, and m is the involved quantity of instances of this process.

When looking at E=mc2, instead of saying E=m and then add the c2 to the concept, as described above, one can also say E=c2, and then add m to the concept. E=c2 as a quantifying equation, is valid in the case m=1kg. Both E and c2 are part of throughput of the Process, that is when M is involved. E is an aggregated amount of effect and c2 is the measure of throughput. Looking at c in the case of M, the elementary propagation c is in a constant acceleration, meaning multiplied by itself through rotational redirection, resulting in c2. Propagation being multiplied by itself means there is a constant force, a constant driver which drives the process anew on the result of the former process step. This typically happens within M, as M is a confined set of F, interacting in a structure of repetition. The E contained in, or attached to, M, is the constant c2, being multiplied with the amount of repetition of c2, which is quantified with M. The outcome E is the total amount of effect of the throughput being confined in the repetitional structure of M. E represents a certain array of the sequential process of c, the array being wrapped in a confined rotational structure of repetition. The equation E=c2 needs m in order to make it a valid quantifying equation for other situations than just m=1. Conceptually it means that E is c2; not that E is a constant like c2 is, but in the sense that E is like c2, part of process throughput; a measure of interaction or actually the result of it. The variable quantity E, equals the constant c2 in case m=1. This is a matter of definition of units. When m is not 1, the amount of E in m, does not equal c2. The variable E is variable because of the variable m and v.v. In order to quantify the variable E, we need to know the amount of the variable m and multiply this m by a factor of c2. In other words; in order to quantify the effect of the throughput of the involved process in scope, we need to quantify the amount of process (m) and multiply it with the conversion factor (c2), representing the throughput of the process. In a similar way we can say, based on m=E/c2, that m equals 1/c2 when E=1.  In order to quantify the variable m, we need to know the amount of the variable E and divide this E by a factor of c2. In other words; in order to quantify the amount of process in scope, m, we need to quantify the effect of the throughput of the involved process in scope (E), and multiply it with the conversion factor (1/c2).

In E=mc2, c2 can be seen as the throughput of the involved process, m as the amount of the involved process and E as the total result. We can make an analogy with a river, transporting water. In this analogy, E is the amount of water flowing through the river in a certain fixed amount of time, the amount of time representing a certain sample-part of the process, this sample of the process being the equivalent of the rotating repetition within m. The analogy is flawed because the river is a sequential process and what we are talking about with E=mc2 is a rotating process. In order to correct the analogy, the sample needs to repeat itself. To fix this we could see the river as flowing in a loop, as in an ongoing roller-coaster making its rounds. Now the fixed amount of time is repeating itself as in a broken record or as the snake biting its tail; there is no beginning and no end. In this analogy, the process of flowing water has a constant throughput, meaning the water always flows with the same speed; the first c in the equation. The second c is obtained with the looping. The variable which determines the amount of involved water(E) is the equivalent of m; a possible variation in width and depth of the river. Thus, m is the equivalent of the aggregated number of repeating samples of the river. The samples are constant in their value of E, as the speed of the water is constant and the repeating rotating timeframes, the loopings, are constant.

Conceptually, in E=mc2, E and m are variables of physics but c is not, c is a constant. Conceptually, E could be a constant because c is a constant, except for the situation in which M is involved, because M introduces the variable repetition of E in structures of ΔF. In this line of thinking, conceptually, without M in scope, for example in case of radiation, one might say E=c. However, the energy of a photon is described by E=h⋅ν=h⋅c/λ. This means that the E of light is not represented by the propagation c, but rather by the helix of the process. The energy of a photon is not constant, it depends on its frequency or wavelength. In other words; the energy of a photon is in the combination of propagation c and the rotational speed, together making the shape of a helix. The photon (one λ) has a fixed propagational speed of c, regardless of the E that the photon has. An array of photons can differ in throughput depending on the λ of the photon while the propagational speed is a constant c. That is why an increase of frequency goes with a decrease of λ. This results in a constant throughput of propagation, having variable intensity or energy or number of photons. Higher intensity or energy or number of photons, means more photons passing through, while being smaller. A single point of the helix in radiation is moving with a constant speed c and so does a single photon but a photon consists of 2 processes; one propagational in one direction c and one rotational in all other right-angle directions. The second process makes the λ of a photon a variable. That is why a constant propagation of c does not result in a constant throughput of photons. There is a variable involved in radiation, making the constant c a variable E. This variable is h/λ, making the equation E=c⋅h/λ. h represents the elementary ΔF. The E (total effect of the throughput of ΔF) of radiation is ΔF times c, made variable by λ, λ being the representative of the rotational frequency in other directions than c, making up the helix.

The helix of radiation consists of 2 processes combined, one process having a constant speed and one process having a variable speed. M also consists of 2 processes, one of those 2 processes in M being the helix. In the equation E=mc2, the 2 processes of M are the equivalent of c2, except for the 2nd process shaping the helix, the one which is variable in speed having variable h/λ. In the equation E=mc2, the variable h/λ is part of m.

E=mc2, M=E/c2 and C=(E/m)/c. How to interpret this C?

In the equation C=(E/m)/c, c is a constant, representing propagation of throughput but the 2 c’s in the equation are conceptually not the same. Their value is the same in terms of scalar speed, but differs in terms of vector velocity. One c is directed in one single direction and the other c is continuously changing its direction. We can make the distinction using the references c and c’. Then we rewrite the equation as c’=(E/m)/c. The interpretation can then be as follows; In the context of M, c’ is the propagation of effect of throughput (E) in all directions, of the involved process, per amount (m) of the process, per c amount of propagation of the process in the one direction of c.

In theory, a continuous ΔF working on a body can have the body accelerate infinitely, if it wasn’t for the fact that the body exists of processes of ΔF having speed c. The body cannot exceed the speed c as it requires a rebuilding process which is faster than the process to rebuild. Such a process will just run out of material. Everything is a process and part of the Process. As far as we know, there is no process faster than c and for a body of M to accelerate towards a speed c, it is required to increase the frequency of the rebuilding of the object, since moving a body means rebuilding the process that the body actually is. In theory it is possible for an object to reach a speed c. It requires a total amount of effect of throughput of ΔF (E), being as much as the involved E that the object represents(E=mc2), times c.  In a way, bringing an object to a speed c, is practising reversed engineering. The object represents c being engineered into a repetitive structure of rotation, in which c is redirected rotation-wise into a process being a locale. To give this object a speed of c is in a way undoing the original engineering, except that it is still a body. A proper practice of reversed engineering in this context, would be to “unwind” the body of redirected c and make it back into a one-dimensional process. This is what happens with a nuclear explosion.

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